51 research outputs found

    Hemijska karakterizacija, antioksidativna i antimikrobna svojstva polisaharidnih ekstrakata odabranih vrsta gljiva

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    Polysaccharides from mushrooms, plants and microorganisms have received considerable attention due to their biological activities, such as antitumor, antiviral, antioxidation, anticomplementary, anticoagulant, hypolipidemic, immunostimulant and immunological activities, which made them possible to be used in many fields including food, cosmetics, biomedicine, agriculture, environmental protection and wastewater management. Oxidative deterioration in natural and processed foods is a large economic concern in the food industry because it affects many quality characteristics such as flavor, color, texture, and the nutritive value of foods. In addition, its products are potentially toxic. Also, reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the pathophysiology of various clinical disorders, including ischemia, reperfusion injury, myocardial infarction, rheumatoid arthritis, neurodegenerative processes, atherosclerosis, acute hypertension, hemorrhagic shock and diabetes mellitus. Food spoilage and food poisoning are among the most important issues facing the food industry. Foodborne illness is a global problem. Development of novel antibacterial compounds for resistant organisms is becoming critically important. The present study was focused on the researching of possible antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of polysaccharide extracts from the selected Basidiomycetes mushroom species: Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes, Phellinus linteus and Trametes versicolor. Based on the analysis, the extracts contained a mixture/complex of polysaccharides, proteins and polyphenols, which were still present in the extracts after hot water treatment, ethanol precipitation and dialysis...Polisaharidi gljiva, biljaka i mikroorganizama privla─Źe veliku pa┼żnju zbog svojih interesantnih biolo┼íkih svojstava kao ┼íto su: antitumorno, antivirusno, antioksidativno, antikomplementarno, antikoagulaciono, hipolipidemijsko dejstvo, kao i imunomodulatorska i imunostimulativna aktivnost, ┼íto ih sve ─Źini pogodnim za primenu u mnogim oblastima, me─Ĺu kojima su i prehrambena industrija, kozmetika, biomedicina, poljoprivreda, za┼ítita ┼żivotne sredine i otpadnih voda. Oksidativna o┼íte─çenja prirodnih i industrijski pripremljenih namirnica predstavljaju veliki ekonomski problem u prehrambenoj industriji, jer direktno uti─Źu na karakteristike kvaliteta kao ┼íto su ukus, boja, tekstura i nutritivne vrednosti. Pored toga, mo┼że do─çi do nastanka potencijalno toksi─Źnih proizvoda. Reaktivne vrste kiseonika u─Źestvuju u patofiziologiji razli─Źitih klini─Źkih poreme─çaja, kao ┼íto su: ishemija, reperfuzione povrede, infarkt miokarda, reumatoidni artritis, neurodegenerativni poreme─çaji, ateroskleroza, hipertenzija, hemoragi─Źki ┼íok i dijabetes. Mikrobiolo┼íko kvarenje hrane i trovanje hranom su jedan od najva┼żnijih problema sa kojima se suo─Źava prehrambena industrija. Alimentarne intoksikacije su danas globalni problem. Porast rezistentnosti patogena na poznate lekove stvara potrebu za razvojem novih antimikrobnih agenasa. U ovom radu su prou─Źavana antioksidativna i antimikrobna svojstva polisaharidnih ekstrakata odabranih vrsta gljiva iz klase Basidiomycetes: Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes, Phellinus linteus i Trametes versicolor.Na osnovu dobijenih rezultata mo┼że se zaklju─Źiti da polisaharidni ekstrakti, dobijeni nakon ekstrakcije vrelom vodom, alkoholne precipitacije i dijalize, predstavljaju sme┼íu/komplekse polisaharida, proteina i fenola..

    Uticaj strukturnih karakteristika na imunostimulativnu aktivnost glukana ekstrahovanih iz gljive Agaricus blazei

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    High molecular weight b-D-glucans derived from Basidiomycetes cell walls are able to specifically activate cellular and humoral components of the host immune system. The aim of this paper was to examine immunomodulating activity of native, chemically and enzimatically modified glucans from Agaricus blazei mushroom and to determine which structural features are of primary importance for their stimulation referring to humane immune cells. The immunomodulating activities were tested in vitro, by stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and measuring of interferon-gamma (IFN-g) production by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Measurements of immunomodulatory capacity of Agaricus blazei native glucans showed their expressive immunostimulating effect on activated PBMCs and synthesis of IFN-g. The results obtained after the stimulation of cells with 1M H2SO4 and 1M NaOH, the treated glucans showed that primary structure is of more importance than the tertiary structure of the triple helix for their immunostimulating activity and synthesis of IFN-g. Glucans of lower molecular weight obtained after acid hydrolysis appeared as effective immunostimulators of PBMC's. The results obtained after the incubation of cells with 1,6 b-glucanase modified glucans suggest that b-(1,6) binding of glucose monomers probably has no importance for the production of imunostimulating effects, in vitro. This confirmed that b-(1,3) bonds are the primary determinants of immunomodulatory activities and stimulation of IFN-g synthesis.b-D-glukani velikih molekulskih masa izolovani iz ─çelijskog zida gljiva iz klase Basidiomycetes imaju sposobnost da specifi─Źno aktiviraju celularne i humoralne komponente imunog sistema doma─çina. Imunomodulatorska aktivnost miko-D-glukana u funkciji je njihovih hemijskih karakteristika, kao ┼íto su molekulska masa, stepen grananja, rastvorljivost u vodi i tercijarna struktura. Cilj ovog rada je bio ispitivanje imunomodulatorske aktivnosti nativnih, hemijski i enzimski modifikovanih glukana gljive Agaricus blazei i da se utvrdi koja je strukturna karakteristika od primarnog zna─Źaja za stimulaciju ─çelija humanog imunog sistema. Imunomodulatorska aktivnost je testirana in vitro, stimulacijom mononuklearnih ─çelija krvi iz perifernog krvotoka (PBMC) molekulima glukana i merenjem koli─Źine sintetisanog interferona-gama (IFN-g) od strane stimulisanih ─çelija enzimoimunotestom (ELISA). Merenjem imunomodulatorskog kapaciteta Agaricus blazei nativnih glukana pokazano je da ovi molekuli imaju izra┼żeno imunostimulativno dejstvo na aktivirane PBMC ─çelije i stimulaciju sinteze IFN-g. Stimulacijom ─çelija glukanima koji su prethodno bili parcijalno hidrolizovani 1M H2SO4 i 1M NaOH izmereni titar IFN-g se nije zna─Źajno promenio u odnosu na nativne molekule. Glukani manjih molekulskih masa, nastali nakon kisele hidrolize, pokazali su se kao efikasni stimulatori PBMC ─çelija. Merenjem titra IFN-g nastalog nakon inkubacije aktiviranih ─çelija sa 1,6 b-glukanazama modifikovanim glukanima potvr─Ĺeno je da su fragmenti b-(1,3)-glukana velikih molekulskih masa (MM > 80 kDa) i mali fragmenti b-(1,3)-glukana (MM lt 80 kDa), nastali nakon enzimske modifikacije, ispoljili zna─Źajno pove─çanje imunostimulativne aktivnosti u odnosu na nativne molekule. Dobijeni rezultati su ukazali da b-(1,6)-glikozidne veze nemaju zna─Źaja u ispoljavanju imunostimulativnog efekta, in vitro. Ovim je potvr─Ĺeno da je za imunostimulativnu aktivnost i stimulaciju sinteze IFN-g od primarnog zna─Źaja prisustvo b-(1,3)-glikozidnih veza. Zaklju─Źeno je da je za imunomodulatorsku aktivnost ovih molekula bitna primarna struktura, a ne konformacija trostrukog heliksa nativnih molekula, kao i da su molekuli glukana manjih molekulskih masa efikasni stimulatori sinteze IFN-╬│

    Antioksidativne aktivnosti vrelih vodenih ekstrakata iz karpofora i spora gljive Ganoderma lucidum

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    Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss.:Fr.) Karst is one of the medicinal mushrooms, which possesses enviable antioxidant properties. Objective of this investigation was to evaluate antioxidant activity, reducing power, scavenging abilities on 1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and chelating effects on ferrous ions of hot water extracts obtained from carpophore and spores of this mushroom. Hot water extract from carpophore (Gl-I) showed high antioxidant activity of 85.7 ┬▒ 0.7%, at 10 mg/ml, while antioxidant activity of hot water extract from spores (Gl-Is) was 9.2 ┬▒ 0.3% at 10 mg/ml. Reducing power of Gl-I reached a plateau of 3.4 ┬▒ 0.1 at 20 mg/ml, and 0.3 ┬▒ 0.0 at 20 mg/ml for Gl-Is. At 10 mg/ml, scavenging ability on DPPH radicals of Gl-I increased to 96.8 ┬▒ 2.5%, whereas Gl-Is scavenged DPPH radicals by 69.6 ┬▒ 2.5% at 10 mg/ml. Gl-I chelated 81.6 ┬▒ 3.6 % of ferrous ions at 20 mg/ml, while the chelating effect of Gl-Is was 73.8 ┬▒ 1.7%. The antioxidative activities of hot water extracts from carpophore and spores of the mushroom G. lucidum were concentration dependent and increased with an increase in the concentration.Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss.: Fr.) Karst je jedna od medicinski va┼żnih gljiva, koja poseduje izuzetna antioksidativna svojstva. Cilj ovog istra┼żivanja bio je potvrda antioksidativne aktivnosti, redukcione sposobnosti, mogu─çnosti hvatanja 1,1-difenil-2-pikrilhidrazil (DPPH) radikala i sposobnosti heliranja jona gvo┼ż─Ĺa vrelih vodenih ekstrakata dobijenih iz karpofora i spora ove gljive. Vreli vodeni ekstrakt iz karpofora (Gl-I) pokazao je visoku antioksidativnu aktivnost 85.7 ┬▒ 0.7%, pri 10 mg/ml, dok je antioksidativna aktivnost vrelog vodenog ekstrakta spora (Gl-Is) bila 9.2 ┬▒ 0.3% pri 10 mg/ml. Redukciona sposobnost ekstrakta Gl-I dostigla je nivo 3.4 ┬▒ 0.1 pri 20 mg/ml i 0.3 ┬▒ 0.0 pri 20 mg/ml za ekstrakt Gl-Is. Pri koncentraciji 10 mg/ml sposobnost hvatanja DPPH radikala ekstrakta Gl-I dostigla je 96.8 ┬▒ 2.5%, dok je ekstrakt Gl-Is vezao 69.6 ┬▒ 2.5% DPPH radikala pri 10 mg/ml. Ekstrakt Gl-I helirao je 81.6 ┬▒ 3.6 % fero jona pri koncentraciji 20 mg/ml, a heliraju─çi efekat ekstrakta Gl-Is bio je 73.8 ┬▒ 1.7%. Antioksidativne aktivnosti vrelih vodenih ekstrakata iz karpofora i spora gljive G. lucidum zavisile su od koncentracije i pove─çavale su se sa pove─çanjem koncentracije

    Ekstrakt šumskog soja gljive Ganoderma lucidum kao prirodni antioksidant

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    Recently, much attention has been paid to revealing natural biomaterials for clinical purposes since use of synthetic antioxidants is restricted due to their carcinogenicity. Among various natural antioxidants, polysaccharides, in general, have strong antioxidant activities and can be explored as novel potential antioxidants. The aim of this work was to examine the antioxidant properties of hot water extracted polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum in the form of mature fruit bodies, collected from the Boj─Źinska forest near Belgrade, the Republic of Serbia. Antioxidant properties were assayed in vitro, by the conjugated diene method, reducing power, scavenging abilities against 1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and chelating ability on ferrous ions. At concentrations of 1 mg/ml, the scavenging ability of G. lucidum polysaccharide extract on DPPH radicals was 74.7 %. At 1 mg/ml, the radical scavenging ability of the positive controls BHT, ascorbic acid and ╬▒-tocopherol were 11.5, 77.1 and 79.4 %, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the polysaccharide extract increased as the concentration increased to 78.0% at 20 mg/ml. Antioxidant activities of ascorbic acid and ╬▒-tocopherol were 63.8 % and 65.4% at 20 mg/ml. Polysaccharide extract from G. lucidum showed steady increase in the reducing activity as concentrations increased to 2.9 at 20 mg/ml. Ascorbic acid, used as a positive control, had a reducing power of 3.9 at 5 mg/ml. Chelating effects of the polysaccharide extract on ferrous ion increased with the increased concentrations. At 0.1-20 mg/ml, the chelating ability of G. lucidum polysaccharide extract was between 10.3-87.8%. The chelating effect of the synthetic metal chelator EDTA was 100% at 0.1-20 mg/ml, while citric acid did not prove to be good chelating agent for ferrous ions in this assay since its chelating ability was 10.3% at 20 mg/ml.U dana┼ínje vreme sve ve─çe pa┼żnja se poklanja pronala┼żenju prirodnih biolo┼íkih materijala koji imaju antioksidativna svojstava. Ne┼żeljeni efekti, o┼íte─çenje jetre i karcinogeneza, od strane sinteti─Źkih antioksidanata koji se koriste kao aditivi ishrani su uveliko potvr─Ĺeni. Me─Ĺu razli─Źitim pri rodnim antioksidantima polisaharidi privla─Źe sve ve─çu pa┼żnju kao jedinjenja sa izra┼żenom antioksidativnom aktivno┼í─çu. Cilj rada je bio da se ispitaju antioksidativna svojstva vrelog vodenog ekstrakta polisaharida gljive Ganoderma lucidum dobijenog iz zrelih plodonosnih tela, prikupljenih u Boj─Źinskoj ┼íumi u blizini Beograda, Republika Srbija. Antioksidativna svojstva su ispitivana pomo─çu antioksidativne metode u model sistemu linoleinske kiseline, merenjem snage redukcije, sposobnosti hvatanja 1,1-difenil-2-pikrilhidrazil (DPPH) radikala i sposobnosti heliranja jona gvo┼ż─Ĺa. Pri koncentraciji od 1 mg/ml sposobnost hvatanja DPPH radikala polisaharidnog ekstrakta ┼íumskog soja Ganoderma lucidum dostigla je nivo od 74.7%, dok su izmerene vrednosti, pri istoj koncentraciji, za pozitivne kontrole BHT, askorbinsku kiselinu i ╬▒-tokoferol iznosile 11.5, 77.1 i 79.4%. Antioksidativna aktivnost izmerena u model sistemu linoleinske kiseline zavisila je od koncentracije i pove─çavala se sa pove─çanjem koncentracije. Izmerena je vrednost od 78.0% pri koncentraciji od 20 mg/ml. Antioksidativne aktivnosti askorbinske kiseline i ╬▒-tokoferola pri koncentraciji od 20 mg/ml bile su 63.8 i 65.4%. Redukciona sposobnost polisaharidnog ekstrakta dostigla je nivo od 2.9 pri 20 mg/ml i 3.9 pri 5 mg/ml kod askorbinske kiseline koja je kori┼í─çena kao pozitivna kontrola. Sposobnost heliranja jona gvo┼ż─Ĺa se pove─çavala sa pove─çanjem koncentracije. Pri koncentraciji od 0.1-20 mg/ml izmerena sposobnost heliranja bila je izme─Ĺu 10.3-87.8%. Helatni efekat EDTA bio je 100% u opsegu od 0.1-20 mg/ml. Limunska kiselina se nije pokazala kao dobar heliraju─çi agens (10.3% pri 20 mg/ml)

    Chemical characterization, antioxidative and antimicrobial properties of polysaccharide extracts from the selected mushroom species

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    Polisaharidi gljiva, biljaka i mikroorganizama privla─Źe veliku pa┼żnju zbog svojih interesantnih biolo┼íkih svojstava kao ┼íto su: antitumorno, antivirusno, antioksidativno, antikomplementarno, antikoagulaciono, hipolipidemijsko dejstvo, kao i imunomodulatorska i imunostimulativna aktivnost, ┼íto ih sve ─Źini pogodnim za primenu u mnogim oblastima, me─Ĺu kojima su i prehrambena industrija, kozmetika, biomedicina, poljoprivreda, za┼ítita ┼żivotne sredine i otpadnih voda. Oksidativna o┼íte─çenja prirodnih i industrijski pripremljenih namirnica predstavljaju veliki ekonomski problem u prehrambenoj industriji, jer direktno uti─Źu na karakteristike kvaliteta kao ┼íto su ukus, boja, tekstura i nutritivne vrednosti. Pored toga, mo┼że do─çi do nastanka potencijalno toksi─Źnih proizvoda. Reaktivne vrste kiseonika u─Źestvuju u patofiziologiji razli─Źitih klini─Źkih poreme─çaja, kao ┼íto su: ishemija, reperfuzione povrede, infarkt miokarda, reumatoidni artritis, neurodegenerativni poreme─çaji, ateroskleroza, hipertenzija, hemoragi─Źki ┼íok i dijabetes. Mikrobiolo┼íko kvarenje hrane i trovanje hranom su jedan od najva┼żnijih problema sa kojima se suo─Źava prehrambena industrija. Alimentarne intoksikacije su danas globalni problem. Porast rezistentnosti patogena na poznate lekove stvara potrebu za razvojem novih antimikrobnih agenasa. U ovom radu su prou─Źavana antioksidativna i antimikrobna svojstva polisaharidnih ekstrakata odabranih vrsta gljiva iz klase Basidiomycetes: Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes, Phellinus linteus i Trametes versicolor.Na osnovu dobijenih rezultata mo┼że se zaklju─Źiti da polisaharidni ekstrakti, dobijeni nakon ekstrakcije vrelom vodom, alkoholne precipitacije i dijalize, predstavljaju sme┼íu/komplekse polisaharida, proteina i fenola...Polysaccharides from mushrooms, plants and microorganisms have received considerable attention due to their biological activities, such as antitumor, antiviral, antioxidation, anticomplementary, anticoagulant, hypolipidemic, immunostimulant and immunological activities, which made them possible to be used in many fields including food, cosmetics, biomedicine, agriculture, environmental protection and wastewater management. Oxidative deterioration in natural and processed foods is a large economic concern in the food industry because it affects many quality characteristics such as flavor, color, texture, and the nutritive value of foods. In addition, its products are potentially toxic. Also, reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the pathophysiology of various clinical disorders, including ischemia, reperfusion injury, myocardial infarction, rheumatoid arthritis, neurodegenerative processes, atherosclerosis, acute hypertension, hemorrhagic shock and diabetes mellitus. Food spoilage and food poisoning are among the most important issues facing the food industry. Foodborne illness is a global problem. Development of novel antibacterial compounds for resistant organisms is becoming critically important. The present study was focused on the researching of possible antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of polysaccharide extracts from the selected Basidiomycetes mushroom species: Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes, Phellinus linteus and Trametes versicolor. Based on the analysis, the extracts contained a mixture/complex of polysaccharides, proteins and polyphenols, which were still present in the extracts after hot water treatment, ethanol precipitation and dialysis..

    Antioksidativna aktivnost vodenog ekstrakta gljive Lentinus edodes oboga─çene selenom

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    Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) belongs to medically important and delicious fungi. It is recognizable for its healing properties, excellent taste and rich aroma. According to the traditional Japanese and Chinese medicine, shiitake mushroom significantly increases the strength and vitality of the body. Shiitake contains immunostimulants, compounds that lower cholesterol, prevents clogging of blood vessels, regulates the pressure, balances blood sugar levels, regulates digestion, and improves the performance of respiratory organs by its antirheumatic and antiallergic activities. Shiitake is recommended to use as food, prevention and cure, usually in a form of a spice (dried and ground) or tea. It can be consumed fresh, too. The objective of this study was to test the effect of enrichment in selenium on antioxidant, reducing and free radical scavenging activity of water extracts from fruit body of Lentinus edodes. The fungus was enhanced by adding organic selenium, zinc (II) complex with the ligand 2.6-bis diacetylpyridine (selenosemicarbazon) and inorganic compounds (Na2SeO3) of selenium in nutritional substrate where the fungus was grown. The total selenium content in fruit body was around 50 ppm for the sample enriched with selenium originating from organic sources, and 80 ppm for the sample enriched with selenium from inorganic sources. Samples were prepared by extraction of fruiting bodies in heated water. The results indicated that water extracts of whole fruit bodies, from both control and mushrooms supplemented with selenium, had quite good antioxidant activity. However, there was no significant difference between the samples supplemented with selenium content and those that were not.Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) pripada grupi medicinski zna─Źajnih i delikatesnih gljiva. Prepoznatljiva je po svojoj lekovitosti, izvanrednom ukusu i bogatoj aromi. Prema tradicionalnoj japanskoj i kineskoj medicini, gljiva shiitake zna─Źajno pove─çava snagu i vitalnost organizma. Shiitake sadr┼że imunostimulanse, sastojke koji sni┼żavaju holesterol, spre─Źavaju za─Źepljenje krvnih sudova, reguli┼íu pritisak, uravnote┼żuju nivo ┼íe─çera u krvi, reguli┼íu probavu, pobolj┼íavaju rad disajnih organa, deluju antireumatski i antialergijski. Preporuka je da se shiitake koriste kao ukusna hrana, preventiva i lek, naj─Źe┼í─çe kao za─Źin (su┼íene i mlevene) ili ─Źaj. Mogu se konzumirati i kao sve┼że pripremljene. Cilj rada bio je da se razjasni da li selen dodat u supstrat za gajenje gljive Lentinus edodes uti─Źe na redukciona svojstva ekstrakta, antioksidativnu aktivnost ekstrakta, kao i procena reaktivnosti ekstrakata prema radikalskim vrstama. Gljiva je oboga─çena selenom dodavanjem organskih, Zn (II) kompleks sa ligandom 2,6-diacetilpiridin bis (selenosemicarbazon), i neorganskih jedinjenja (Na2SeO3) selena u hranljivi supstrat na kojem je gljiva uzgajana. Ukupan sadr┼żaj selena u plodonosnom telu kretao se oko 50 ppm za uzorak oboga─çen selenom iz organskog izvora i 80 ppm za uzorak oboga─çen selenom iz neorganskog izvora. Uzorci su pripremljeni ekstrakcijom plodonosnih tela u zagrejanoj vodi. Dobijeni rezultati ukazuju na to da vodeni ekstrakti celih gljiva, kako kontrolnih tako i sa dodatkom selena, imaju dobru antioksidativnu aktivnost. Me─Ĺutim, nije prime─çena zna─Źajna razlika izme─Ĺu uzoraka sa i bez sadr┼żaja selena

    Antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of champignon mushroom

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    Fruiting bodies of some wild and cultivatable mushrooms contain medicinal compounds which are being used in traditional medicines and cosmetics. Champignon mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) is the most widely cultivated species of edible mushroom worldwide. This paper focuses on antioxidant and antimicrobial importance of A bisporus. Water-soluble polysaccharide-enriched fraction was isolated from the dry carpophores of Agaricus bisporus. Antioxidant activities were investigated using in vitro assay systems: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and chelating ability on ferrous ions. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria in vitro by disk diffusion method in order to determine the zones of inhibition. At concentrations of 0.1-10 mg/ml, the scavenging abilities of A bisporus ranged between 12.3-75.5 %. The radical scavenging ability of the positive controls-tocopherol and ascorbic acid, at the concentrations of 0.1-20 mg/ml, were between 79.9-80.8 and 80.6-91.1 %, respectively. Polysaccharide extract from A bisporus showed steadily increasing chelating ability as concentrations increased to 88.2 % at 20 mg/ml. The chelating ability of the citric acid was between 7.2-10.7 %, at the concentrations of 0.1-20 mg/ml. The study of antimicrobial potential of polysaccharide extract showed more potent activity against Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 49532 (26.7 ┬▒ 0.2 mm), Bacillus cereus 10876 (27.5 ┬▒ 0.4 mm), Geobacillus stearothermophylus ATCC 7953 (22.8 ┬▒ 0.3 mm) than Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 35032 (10.4 ┬▒ 0.6 mm), Proteus hauseri ATCC 13315 (12.1 ┬▒ 0.1 mm) Escherichia coli (0157:H7) 35150 (12.7 ┬▒ 0.4 mm) with exception of Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 27736 (22.3 ┬▒ 0.2 mm)

    Zeolites as possible biofortifiers in maitake cultivation

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    The levels of Ni, Cu and Mg in Grifola frondosa (also known as Maitake mushroom) fruit body produced on zeolite Minazel Plus (MG)-supplemented substrate were measured with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Two different concentrations of MG were added to the substrate for mushroom cultivation. Levels of selected metals were measured in cultivated dry carpophores. The content of Ni increased in fruit bodies produced on supplemented substrate, while in case of Cu, a pronounced decrease was observed. When two different concentrations of MG were implemented, the Mg level showed both positive and negative trend, depending on the applied concentration of zeolite. MG in a concentration of 1% showed the strongest influence on the observed elements in the cultivated fruiting body of Maitake mushroom

    Efekat kisele i bazne hidrolize na imunomodulatorska svojstva glukana viših gljiva, in vitro

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    Immunomodulatory activities of higher mushroom glucans depend on such chemical properties as their molecular weight, branching patterns, water solubility and tertiary structure. The aim of the study was to examine how glucans size and conformation affect their in vitro immunomodulatory properties. Measurements of the immunomodulatory capacity of Agaricus blazei and Phellinus linteus native glucans showed that A. blazei glucans expressed an immunostimulating effect on activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and the synthesis of interferon-gamma (IFN-╬│). P. linteus glucans showed a characteristic immunosuppressive effect. The results obtained after the stimulation of cells with 1M H2SO4 and 1M NaOH treated glucans confirmed that the immunomodulatory activity of glucans was due to the size and conformation. Glucans of a lower molecular weight obtained after acid hydrolysis appeared to be effective immunostimulators of PBMCs. Obtained results indicated that the primary structure of glucans was of more importance then the tertiary structure of the triple helix for their immunostimulating activity. The study confirmed that the size and conformation of native P. linteus glucans were of a primary importance for their immunosupressive effect.Imunomodulatorska aktivnost glukana vi┼íih gljiva u funkciji je od njihovih hemijskih karakteristika, kao ┼íto su molekulska masa, stepen grananja, rastvorljivost u vodi i tercijarna struktura. Cilj ovog rada bio je da se ispita uticaj veli─Źine i konformacije miko glukana na njihova imunomodularska svojstva, in vitro. Merenjem imunomodulatorskog kapaciteta Agaricus blazei i Phellinus linteus nativnih glukana pokazano je da A. blazei glukani imaju izra┼żeno imunostimulativno dejstvo na aktivirane mononuklearne ─çelije krvi iz perifernog krvotoka (PBMC-Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell) i stimulaciju sinteze interferona-gama (IFN-╬│). P. linteus glukani su ispoljili izra┼żeno imunosupresivno dejstvo. Stimulacijom ─çelija glukanima koji su prethodno hidrolizovani 1M H2SO4 i 1M NaOH zaklju─Źeno je da su veli─Źina i konformacija molekula bitne hemijske karakteristike od kojih zavisi njihova imunomodulatorska aktivnost. Glukani manjih molekulskih masa, nastali nakon kisele hidrolize, pokazali su se kao efikasni imunostimulatori PBMC ─çelija. Ukazano je da je za imunostimulativnu aktivnost ovih molekula bitna primarna struktura, a ne konformacija trostrukog heliksa nativnih molekula. Ispitivanjem imunosupresivnog efekta P. linteus glukana na sintezu IFN-╬│ pokazano je da su za ovaj efekat bitna veli─Źina molekula kao i konformacija nativnih molekula

    Polisaharidi viših gljiva - bioloska uloga, struktura i antioksidativna aktivnost

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    The fungal polysaccharides attract a lot of attention due to their multiple challenging biological properties, such as: anti-tumor, anti-viral, anticomplementary, anticoagulant, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory and immune-stimulatory activities, which all together make them suitable for application in many quite distinctive areas, such as food industry, biomedicine, cosmetology, agriculture, environmental protection and waste water management. This article presents results with respect to biological properties, structure and procedures related to the isolation and activation of polysaccharides of higher fungi. It is considered and presented along with a review of the critical antioxidative activity and possible influence of the structural composition of polysaccharide extracts (isolated from these higher fungi) upon their antioxidative properties.Polisaharidi gljiva privla─Źe veliku pa┼żnju zbog svojih interesantnih bioloskih svojstava kao sto su: antitumorno, antivirusno, antikomplementarno, antikoagulaciono, hipolipidemijsko dejstvo, kao i imunomodulatorska i imunostimulativna aktivnost, sto ih sve ─Źini pogodnim za primenu u mnogim oblastima, me─Ĺu kojima su i prehrambena industrija, kozmetika, biomedicina, poljoprivreda, zastita ┼żivotne sredine i otpadnih voda. Oksidativna ostecenja prirodnih i industrijski pripremljenih namirnica predstavljaju veliki ekonomski problem na globalnom nivou, s obzirom da direktno uti─Źu na promenu organolepti─Źkih osobina proizvoda, pri ─Źemu dolazi i do stvaranja potencijalno toksi─Źnih jedinjenja. Zbog toga se danas sve ve─ça pa┼żnja posve─çuje istra┼żivanjima novih prirodnih izvora antioksidanasa, me─Ĺu kojima su veoma zna─Źajni i polisaharidni ekstrakti razli─Źitih bazidiomiceta. U ovom radu su prikazana bioloska svojstva, struktura, kao i postupci izolovanja i aktivacije polisaharida visih gljiva. Dat je i pregled antioksidativne aktivnosti polisaharidnih ekstrakata visih gljiva i razmatran je uticaj strukturnih karakteristika ovih ekstrakata na antioksidativna svojstva
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