7,162 research outputs found

    Cтан і перспективи розвитку вівчарства в західному регіоні України

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    Sheep farming is considered a powerful source of lamb production. The analysis of the current state of sheep breeding in the western region of Ukraine and the changes that have occurred since 1991 in this industry have been analyzed. The work was performed on the basis of generalization, analysis, synthesis and comparison of data of the State Statistics Committee for the period 1991–2019, surveys of owners of farms and farms that raise sheep, scientific publications, including online publications and web pages. The article outlines the priority areas of industry development and ways to implement them. It is noted that today sheep breeding in Ukraine is characterized by the zonal principle of placement. The main factor in this process is natural climatic and economic conditions. Analysis of statistical data shows that since 1992 the number of sheep in Ukraine, including farms of the western region, has significantly decreased, namely from 7896.2 thousand (1991) as of January 1, 2019 in all categories of farms Ukraine's sheep population decreased to 698.5 thousand or 11.3 times, and in the regions of the western region – from 848.6 thousand to 180.7 thousand or 4.7 times. It is noted that currently the bulk of the sheep population both in Ukraine and in its West (75.3 and 86.6 %, respectively) is concentrated in households, while at agricultural enterprises this figure is at the level of 24.7 and 13.4 %, respectively. The main shortcomings in the field of sheep breeding in the western region of Ukraine are reflected and possible ways to eliminate them are outlined. Sheep farms should take the following important measures: genetic improvement of meat and wool breeds and types available in the region by purebred breeding and crossing of local low-yielding uterine livestock with breeders of specialized imported meat breeds; creation of new zonal genotypes of meat and wool animals with high productive and reproductive qualities; introduction of the newest modern industrial technologies of keeping and fattening of sheep for lamb production; creation of a network of specialized slaughterhouses capable of slaughtering sheep, assessment and varietal cutting of carcasses in accordance with the requirements of international standards and specific consumers; improving the market for finished products.Вівчарство вважається потужним джерелом виробництва ягнятини та баранини. Проведено аналіз сучасного стану вівчарства у західному регіоні України та проаналізовано зміни, які відбулися з 1991 року в даній галузі. Робота виконана на підставі узагальнення, аналізу, синтезу та порівняння даних Державного комітету статистики за період 1991–2019 років, опитувань власників селянських і фермерських господарств, які розводять овець, наукових публікацій, у т. ч. інтернет-видань та веб-сторінок. У статті викладено пріоритетні напрями розвитку галузі та шляхи їх виконання. Зазначено, що сьогодні вівчарству в Україні характерний зональний принцип розміщення. Головним фактором цього процесу є природно-кліматичні та господарські умови. Аналізуючи статистичні дані, виявили, що починаючи з 1992 року поголів’я овець в Україні, в тому числі в господарствах західного регіону, істотно зменшилося, а саме з 7896,2 тис. (1991 р.) станом на 1 січня 2019 року в усіх категоріях господарств України поголів’я овець зменшилося до 698,5 тис., або у 11,3 раза, а в областях західного регіону – з 848,6 тис. до 180,7 тис., або у 4,7 раза. Зазначено, що в даний час основна маса поголів’я овець як в Україні, так і на її заході (75,3 і 86,6 % відповідно) зосереджена в господарствах населення, тимчасом як на сільськогосподарських підприємствах цей показник перебуває на рівні 24,7 і 13,4 % відповідно. Відображено основні недоліки в галузі вівчарства західного регіону України та накреслено можливі шляхи їх усунення. Господарствам з розведення овець варто провести такі важливі заходи: генетичне вдосконалення наявних в регіоні м’ясо-вовнових порід і типів методом чистопородного розведення та схрещування місцевого низькопродуктивного маточного поголів’я із плідниками спеціалізованих імпортних м’ясних порід; створення нових зональних генотипів тварин м’ясо-вовнового напряму продуктивності з високими продуктивними та відтворювальними якостями; впровадження новітніх сучасних промислових технологій утримання і відгодівлі овець для виробництва ягнятини; створення мережі спеціалізованих забійних пунктів, здатних проводити забій овець, оцінку та сортовий розруб туш згідно з вимогами міжнародних стандартів і конкретних споживачів; поліпшення ринку збуту виробленої готової продукції

    Measurement of Branching Fractions and Rate Asymmetries in the Rare Decays B -> K(*) l+ l-

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    In a sample of 471 million BB events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e+e- collider we study the rare decays B -> K(*) l+ l-, where l+ l- is either e+e- or mu+mu-. We report results on partial branching fractions and isospin asymmetries in seven bins of di-lepton mass-squared. We further present CP and lepton-flavor asymmetries for di-lepton masses below and above the J/psi resonance. We find no evidence for CP or lepton-flavor violation. The partial branching fractions and isospin asymmetries are consistent with the Standard Model predictions and with results from other experiments.Comment: 16 pages, 14 figures, accepted by Phys. Rev.

    Improved Limits on B0B^{0} decays to invisible (+γ)(+\gamma) final states

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    We establish improved upper limits on branching fractions for B0 decays to final States 10 where the decay products are purely invisible (i.e., no observable final state particles) and for final states where the only visible product is a photon. Within the Standard Model, these decays have branching fractions that are below the current experimental sensitivity, but various models of physics beyond the Standard Model predict significant contributions for these channels. Using 471 million BB pairs collected at the Y(4S) resonance by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II e+e- storage ring at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, we establish upper limits at the 90% confidence level of 2.4x10^-5 for the branching fraction of B0-->Invisible and 1.7x10^-5 for the branching fraction of B0-->Invisible+gammaComment: 8 pages, 3 postscript figures, submitted to Phys. Rev. D (Rapid Communications

    Search for lepton-number violating processes in B+ -> h- l+ l+ decays

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    We have searched for the lepton-number violating processes B+ -> h- l+ l+ with h- = K-/pi- and l+ = e+/mu+, using a sample of 471+/-3 million BBbar events collected with the BaBar detector at the PEP-II e+e- collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We find no evidence for these decays and place 90% confidence level upper limits on their branching fractions Br(B+ -> pi- e+ e+) K- e+ e+) pi- mu+ mu+) K- mu+ mu+) < 6.7 x 10^{-8}.Comment: 8 pages, 4 postscript figures, submitted to Phys. Rev. D. R

    Cross Sections for the Reactions e+e- --> K+ K- pi+pi-, K+ K- pi0pi0, and K+ K- K+ K- Measured Using Initial-State Radiation Events

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    We study the processes e+e- --> K+ K- pi+pi-gamma, K+ K- pi0pi0gamma, and K+ K- K+ K-gamma, where the photon is radiated from the initial state. About 84000, 8000, and 4200 fully reconstructed events, respectively, are selected from 454 fb-1 of BaBar data. The invariant mass of the hadronic final state defines the \epem center-of-mass energy, so that the K+ K- pi+pi- data can be compared with direct measurements of the e+e- --> K+ K- pi+pi- reaction. No direct measurements exist for the e+e- --> K+ K-pi0pi0 or e+e- --> K+ K-K+ K- reactions, and we present an update of our previous result with doubled statistics. Studying the structure of these events, we find contributions from a number of intermediate states, and extract their cross sections. In particular, we perform a more detailed study of the e+e- --> phi(1020)pipigamma reaction, and confirm the presence of the Y(2175) resonance in the phi(1020) f0(980) and K+K-f0(980) modes. In the charmonium region, we observe the J/psi in all three final states and in several intermediate states, as well as the psi(2S) in some modes, and measure the corresponding product of branching fraction and electron width.Comment: 35 pages, 42 figure

    Measurement of ISR-FSR interference in the processes e+ e- --> mu+ mu- gamma and e+ e- --> pi+ pi- gamma

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    Charge asymmetry in processes e+ e- --> mu+ mu- gamma and e+ e- --> pi+ pi- gamma is measured using 232 fb-1 of data collected with the BABAR detector at center-of-mass energies near 10.58 GeV. An observable is introduced and shown to be very robust against detector asymmetries while keeping a large sensitivity to the physical charge asymmetry that results from the interference between initial and final state radiation. The asymmetry is determined as afunction of the invariant mass of the final-state tracks from production threshold to a few GeV/c2. It is compared to the expectation from QED for e+ e- --> mu+ mu- gamma and from theoretical models for e+ e- --> pi+ pi- gamma. A clear interference pattern is observed in e+ e- --> pi+ pi- gamma, particularly in the vicinity of the f_2(1270) resonance. The inferred rate of lowest order FSR production is consistent with the QED expectation for e+ e- --> mu+ mu- gamma, and is negligibly small for e+ e- --> pi+ pi- gamma.Comment: 32 pages,29 figures, to be submitted to Phys. Rev.

    Branching fraction and form-factor shape measurements of exclusive charmless semileptonic B decays, and determination of |V_{ub}|

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    We report the results of a study of the exclusive charmless semileptonic decays, B^0 --> pi^- l^+ nu, B^+ --> pi^0 l^+ nu, B^+ --> omega l^+ nu, B^+ --> eta l^+ nu and B^+ --> eta^' l^+ nu, (l = e or mu) undertaken with approximately 462x10^6 B\bar{B} pairs collected at the Upsilon(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector. The analysis uses events in which the signal B decays are reconstructed with a loose neutrino reconstruction technique. We obtain partial branching fractions in several bins of q^2, the square of the momentum transferred to the lepton-neutrino pair, for B^0 --> pi^- l^+ nu, B^+ --> pi^0 l^+ nu, B^+ --> omega l^+ nu and B^+ --> eta l^+ nu. From these distributions, we extract the form-factor shapes f_+(q^2) and the total branching fractions BF(B^0 --> pi^- l^+ nu) = (1.45 +/- 0.04_{stat} +/- 0.06_{syst})x10^-4 (combined pi^- and pi^0 decay channels assuming isospin symmetry), BF(B^+ --> omega l^+ nu) = (1.19 +/- 0.16_{stat} +/- 0.09_{syst})x10^-4 and BF(B^+ --> eta l^+ nu) = (0.38 +/- 0.05_{stat} +/- 0.05_{syst})x10^-4. We also measure BF(B^+ --> eta^' l^+ nu) = (0.24 +/- 0.08_{stat} +/- 0.03_{syst})x10^-4. We obtain values for the magnitude of the CKM matrix element V_{ub} by direct comparison with three different QCD calculations in restricted q^2 ranges of B --> pi l^+ nu decays. From a simultaneous fit to the experimental data over the full q^2 range and the FNAL/MILC lattice QCD predictions, we obtain |V_{ub}| = (3.25 +/- 0.31)x10^-3, where the error is the combined experimental and theoretical uncertainty.Comment: 35 pages, 14 figures, submitted to PR

    Observation of time-reversal violation in the B0 meson system

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    The individually named authors work collectively as The BABAR Collaboration. Copyright @ 2012 American Physical Society.Although CP violation in the B meson system has been well established by the B factories, there has been no direct observation of time-reversal violation. The decays of entangled neutral B mesons into definite flavor states (B0 or B¯¯¯0), and J/ψK0L or cc¯K0S final states (referred to as B+ or B−), allow comparisons between the probabilities of four pairs of T-conjugated transitions, for example, B¯¯¯0→B− and B−→B¯¯¯0, as a function of the time difference between the two B decays. Using 468×106 BB¯¯¯ pairs produced in Υ(4S) decays collected by the BABAR detector at SLAC, we measure T-violating parameters in the time evolution of neutral B mesons, yielding ΔS+T=−1.37±0.14(stat)±0.06(syst) and ΔS−T=1.17±0.18(stat)±0.11(syst). These nonzero results represent the first direct observation of T violation through the exchange of initial and final states in transitions that can only be connected by a T-symmetry transformation.DOE and NSF (USA), NSERC (Canada), CEA and CNRS-IN2P3 (France), BMBF and DFG(Germany), INFN (Italy), FOM (The Netherlands), NFR (Norway), MES (Russia), MINECO (Spain), STFC (United Kingdom). Individuals have received support from the Marie Curie EIF (European Union), the A. P. Sloan Foundation (USA) and the Binational Science Foundation (USA-Israel)
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