33 research outputs found

    The semiology of changing brand image

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    This article considers the attempted change to the image of an established brand by studying the semiotics within the brand’s historical advertising campaigns. The use of semiotics to study the interpretation of messages is discussed, and the link between interpretation of messages and advertising effectiveness in changing brand image is explored. The authors deconstruct advertisements of a brand to provide a model containing opposing dialectics that may aid managers by highlighting alternative symbolic messages contained in advertisements. Oncwe identified, these alternative symbolic messages may be used to help change brand image and influence advertising effectiveness. Although the study focuses upon a major brand of beer, this is an industry in which there are numerous small firms, and many of those have constrained marketing budgets, and thus need to make sure that their advertising is effective. Equally, entrepreneurial marketing is not to found only in the small firm, and the case study discusses a radical and imaginative brand repositioning of a well established product

    Gastric and intestinal barrier impairment in tropical enteropathy and HIV: limited impact of micronutrient supplementation during a randomised controlled trial

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Although micronutrient supplementation can reduce morbidity and mortality due to diarrhoea, nutritional influences on intestinal host defence are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that micronutrient supplementation can enhance barrier function of the gut.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We carried out two sub-studies nested within a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of daily micronutrient supplementation in an urban community in Lusaka, Zambia. In the first sub-study, gastric pH was measured in 203 participants. In the second sub-study, mucosal permeability, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and anti-LPS antibodies, and serum soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor p55 (sTNFR55) concentrations were measured in 87 participants. Up to three stool samples were also analysed microbiologically for detection of asymptomatic intestinal infection. Gastric histology was subsequently analysed in a third subset (n = 37) to assist in interpretation of the pH data. Informed consent was obtained from all participants after a three-stage information and consent process.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Hypochlorhydria (fasting gastric pH > 4.0) was present in 75 (37%) of participants. In multivariate analysis, HIV infection (OR 4.1; 95%CI 2.2-7.8; <it>P </it>< 0.001) was associated with hypochlorhydria, but taking anti-retroviral treatment (OR 0.16; 0.04-0.67; <it>P </it>= 0.01) and allocation to micronutrient supplementation (OR 0.53; 0.28-0.99; <it>P </it>< 0.05) were protective. Hypochlorhydria was associated with increased risk of salmonellosis. Mild (grade 1) gastric atrophy was found in 5 participants, irrespective of <it>Helicobacter pylori </it>or HIV status. Intestinal permeability, LPS concentrations in serum, anti-LPS IgG, and sTNFR55 concentrations did not differ significantly between micronutrient and placebo groups. Anti-LPS IgM was reduced in the micronutrient recipients (<it>P <</it>0.05).</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>We found evidence of a specific effect of HIV on gastric pH which was readily reversed by anti-retroviral therapy and not mediated by gastric atrophy. Micronutrients had a modest impact on gastric pH and one marker of bacterial translocation.</p> <p>Trial Registration</p> <p>Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN31173864</p

    Visitor relationship orientation of destination marketing organisations

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    The proposition underpinning this study is that engaging in meaningful dialogue with previous visitors represents an efficient and effective use of resources for a destination marketing organization (DMO), compared to above-the-line advertising in broadcast media. However, there has been a lack of attention in the tourism literature relating to destination switching, loyalty, and customer relationship management (CRM) to test such a proposition. This article reports an investigation of visitor relationship marketing orientation among DMOs. A model of CRM orientation, which was developed from the wider marketing literature and a prior qualitative study, was used to develop a scale to operationalize DMO—visitor relationship orientation. Owing to a small sample, the partial least squares method of structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. Although the sample limits the ability to generalize, the results indicate that the DMOs’ visitor orientation is generally responsive and reactive rather than proactive