62 research outputs found

    Gender gap dynamics among refugees and recent immigrants: different start, similar patterns?

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    In the last years, the labor market integration of immigrant women has received much attention in the migration literature. We examine gender differences in labor market integration among refugees and other new immigrants who came to Germany during a similar period from a dynamic perspective. Using two panel data sources, which include recently arrived refugees (the IAB-BAMF-SOEP Sample of Refugees) and other immigrants (the IAB-SOEP Migration Sample) in Germany, we compare the dynamics and sources of employment gender gap among refugees and other immigrants. The results uncover narrow initial gender differences among refugees that grow over time and a reversed pattern among other immigrants. However, female refugees’ initial disadvantaged starting position maintains five years after arrival. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the explanations offered in the literature cannot fully explain the hurdles female refugees and other immigrants face when entering the labor market

    Kinship, inter- and intraethnic social networks and refugees' division of housework

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    Objective: This article investigates the role of social connections - kin proximity, premigration friends, and exposure to intra- and interethnic contacts in the host country - in the division of routine housework in refugee couples in Germany. Background: Although social connections are established as an influential factor in the economic and societal integration of newcomers, the role of such connections for the household division of labor among immigrant couples is less understood. Method: Pooled OLS and fixed-effect models were applied to four waves of the longitudinal IAB-BAMF-SOEP Survey of Refugees (2016-2019) to study coupled refugees of working age (1,045 couples, 2,699 couple-years). Results: We find that social connections are significant to the gendered division of routine housework among refugee couples. In particular, networks consisting of new inter- and intraethnic contacts are more influential than those consisting of kins and premigration friends. Moreover, it appears that the kin and new coethnic contacts of the husband are negatively related to their involvement in housework in absolute hours and relative to their wives. Husbands' new contacts with Germans are positively related to their involvement in routine housework. In turn, wives’ contacts with Germans are not associated with a more egalitarian division of housework. Conclusion: Social networks may provide useful explanations for immigrants' domestic behavior, and they should be considered in setting up new policies that guide their integration

    Institutional change and gender inequalities at labour market entry: a comparison of Estonia, Russia, and East and West Germany

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    Our study investigates how gender inequalities in job opportunities evolved during communist and post-communist times in former state-socialist countries. Theoretical arguments (mainly based on studies referring to Western countries) led to the expectation of a surge in gender inequalities in these countries after the collapse of communism. Empirically, we explore the gender gap in job authority upon labour market entry by using life-history data from Russia, Estonia, and East Germany, with West Germany serving as a control case. The selection of countries was motivated primarily by the availability of rich life-history data, covering four decades of (post-) state socialism but also by divergences in institutional set-ups in the course of transition from state socialism to a liberalised market economy. Our findings yield four major results. First, accounting for education and the branch of economy, women were not disadvantaged during Soviet times; instead, we have even found evidence of a slight female advantage in Estonia and East Germany. Thus, our findings mirror the communist regime's effectiveness in equalising women's and men's opportunities at work. Second, in the pre-collapse decade, the advantage of women in terms of job authority decreased in East Germany and Estonia, whereas in Russia, women fell behind men. Third, with the Soviet Union collapse, a remarkable female disadvantage emerged in all formerly state socialist countries under scrutiny. In addition, we observe a growing gender gap in West Germany in the same period. The latter result strengthens the conclusion that times of economic liberalisation may go hand-in-hand with increasing gender inequalities

    Institutional Change and Gender Inequalities at Labour Market Entry: A Comparison of Estonia, Russia, and East and West Germany

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    Our study investigates how gender inequalities in job opportunities evolved during communist and post-communist times in former state-socialist countries. Theoretical arguments (mainly based on studies referring to Western countries) led to the expectation of a surge in gender inequalities in these countries after the collapse of communism. Empirically, we explore the gender gap in job authority upon labour market entry by using life-history data from Russia, Estonia, and East Germany, with West Germany serving as a control case. The selection of countries was motivated primarily by the availability of rich life-history data, covering four decades of (post-) state socialism but also by divergences in institutional set-ups in the course of transition from state socialism to a liberalised market economy. Our findings yield four major results. First, accounting for education and the branch of economy, women were not disadvantaged during Soviet times; instead, we have even found evidence of a slight female advantage in Estonia and East Germany. Thus, our findings mirror the communist regime’s effectiveness in equalising women’s and men’s opportunities at work. Second, in the pre-collapse decade, the advantage of women in terms of job authority decreased in East Germany and Estonia, whereas in Russia, women fell behind men. Third, with the Soviet Union collapse, a remarkable female disadvantage emerged in all formerly state socialist countries under scrutiny. In addition, we observe a growing gender gap in West Germany in the same period. The latter result strengthens the conclusion that times of economic liberalisation may go hand-in-hand with increasing gender inequalities

    The effect of co-ethnic social capital on immigrants' labor market integration : a natural experiment

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    Empirically identifying the causal effect of social capital on immigrants’ economic prospects is a challenging task due to the non-random residential sorting of immigrants into locations with greater opportunities for prior or co-ethnic connections. Our study addresses this selection-bias issue by using a natural-experimental dataset of refugees and other immigrants who were exogenously allocated to their first place of residence by German authorities. This unique opportunity allows us to make an important methodological contribution to the predominantly observational knowledge about immigration and co-ethnic social capital. Although a growing body of migration studies in economics and sociology stresses the importance of social networks for migrants’ labor market integration, our results show little evidence of a causal effect of social networks themselves. Being part of a larger co-ethnic community per se does not accelerate immigrants’ labor market success except for the migrants who use the resources embedded in their social contacts when looking for a job. We conclude that further methodological advancements can be achieved by embracing recent technological developments and by combining different methods to increase both internal and external validity of findings in migration studies.Published: 12 April 202

    Interviewer Falsification in Survey Research: Detection Methods and Impact of Fraudulent Interviews

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    The role of the interviewer and sources of interviewer error in the survey data collection process are widely discussed topics in the survey methodology literature. An understudied problem in this context is the falsification of interview data by the interviewer. Research gaps concern, for example, how conclusions drawn from survey data are affected by falsified interviews. So far it is commonly assumed, that the possible effect of falsifications on univariate statistics can only be as high as the overall share of falsified data. Since the share of faked data is usually very low for most surveys, the problem is regarded as negligible. However, this advice is unlikely to hold for all types of survey questions. For bi- and multivariate statistics, the impact of interviewer falsification has also received little research attention. A further research gap concerns the utility and sensitivity of different identification methods proposed in the literature. Overall, the number of proposed identification methods is quite considerable, and numerous falsification indicators are suggested by different authors. Such indicators attempt to distinguish between honest and fake interviewing behaviours as well as the responding styles of real and fictional respondents. These indicators can be differentiated between formal indicators (analyzing the response behavior), content related indicators (analyzing the distribution of different items) as well as indicators on paradata (analyzing differences within the paradata). These indicators can be incorporated into a variety of statistical methods (e.g. cluster analysis) that attempt to identify “at risk” interviewers. However, it is rare to find empirical evaluations of these methods in real-world settings. The above research gaps are partially due to the lack of appropriate empirical data made publicly available to researchers. A large proportion of studies are based solely on experimental (or simulated) data, for which the universal validity of the results are questionable. Using actual fake interview data from a large survey in Germany, we investigated and sought to address the above research gaps. These data include a variety of different question types that permit a broad and systematic comparison of the described methods. Hence, this paper aims to 1) identify the potential biases introduced by interviewer falsification, and 2) evaluate the potential usefulness of various identification strategies proposed in the literature. In addition, we propose new falsification detection methods to improve future interviewer controls

    Chapter 7: Statistical Identification of Fraudulent Interviews in Surveys: Improving Interviewer Controls Appendix 7

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    Table A7A.1 Number of identical response pattern

    The Impact of Formal Adult Education on the Likelihood of Being Employed: a Comparative Overview

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    "This article aims to map formal adult education in terms of the determinants of educational upgrading later in life, relating these back to social inequalities from a comparative perspective, and to labour market outcomes following participation, particularly the probability of being employed. It relies on a longitudinal analysis of data from the United Kingdom, Spain, Sweden and Russia. Results show that educational upgrading at mature ages has the potential for reducing social inequalities in all the countries analysed. Upgraders tend to come from a medium to low education background in Russia and the UK but from the tertiary educated in Spain and Sweden. Labour market marginalisation increases the chance of upgrading particularly in Sweden. Upgrading tends to increase employment opportunities, though these are in some cases conditional on being employed whilst studying. This is specifically the case for Russia and for men in the UK. We also found important country-specific gender differences in the effect of upgrading on employment opportunities, according to which women benefit more than men in the UK and Sweden. We conclude with some suggestions about the institutional effects that produce differences between countries.2 (author's abstract

    The impact of formal adult education on the likelihood of being employed: A comparative overview

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    This article aims to map formal adult education in terms of the determinants of educational upgrading later in life, relating these back to social inequalities from a comparative perspective, and to labour market outcomes following participation, particularly the probability of being employed. It relies on a longitudinal analysis of data from the United Kingdom, Spain, Sweden and Russia. Results show that educational upgrading at mature ages has the potential for reducing social inequalities in all the countries analysed. Upgraders tend to come from a medium to low education background in Russia and the UK but from the tertiary educated in Spain and Sweden. Labour market marginalisation increases the chance of upgrading particularly in Sweden. Upgrading tends to increase employment opportunities, though these are in some cases conditional on being employed whilst studying. This is specifi cally the case for Russia and for men in the UK. We also found important country-specifi c gender diff erences in the eff ect of upgrading on employment opportunities, according to which women benefi t more than men in the UK and Sweden. We conclude with some suggestions about the institutional eff ects that produce diff erences between countries

    Zweite Welle der IAB-BAMF-SOEP-Befragung: Geflüchtete machen Fortschritte bei Sprache und Beschäftigung

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    In der BAMF-Kurzanalyse 1|2019 werden erste Erkenntnisse aus der zweiten Erhebung der IAB-BAMF-SOEP-Befragung von GeflĂĽchteten aus dem Jahr 2017 vorgestellt. Dabei geht es um Schutzsuchende, die zwischen 1. Januar 2013 und 31. Dezember 2016 zugezogen sind, und deren Haushaltsmitglieder. Die Gesamtstichprobe umfasst 7.430 erwachsene Personen, die mindestens einmal befragt wurden. In allen untersuchten Bereichen zeichnet sich eine Verbesserung der Integration und Teilhabe von GeflĂĽchteten im Vergleich zum Vorjahr ab.BAMF Brief Analysis 1|2019 presents first findings based on the second wave of the IAB-BAMF-SOEP survey of refugees in 2017. The survey is a longitudinal study of refugees and their household members, who came to Germany between January, 1 2013, and December, 31 2016. The total sample included 7,430 adults who were surveyed at least once. In comparison to the previous year, an improvement in the integration and inclusion of refugees is evident in all the examined areas
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