10 research outputs found

    Chemical properties and similarity of habitats of Utricularia species in Lower Silesia, Poland

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    Assessment of habitat conditions using Self-Organizing Feature Maps for reintroduction/introduction of Aldrovanda vesiculosa L. in Poland

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    The study objects were Aldrovanda vesiculosa L., an endangered species and fifty five water sites in Poland. The aim of the present work was to test the Self-Organizing Feature Map in order to examine and predict water properties and type of trophicity for restoration of the rare plant. Descriptive statistical parameters have been calculated, analysis of variance and cluster analysis were carried out and SOFM model has been constructed for analysed sites. The results of SOFM model and cluster analysis were compared. The study revealed that the ordination of individuals and groups of neurons in topological map of sites are similar in relation to dendrogram of cluster analysis, but not identical. The constructed SOFM model is related with significantly different contents of chemical water properties and type of trophicity. It appeared that sites with A. vesiculosa are predominantly distrophic and eutrophic waters shifted to distrophicity. The elevated model showed the sites with chemical properties favourable for restoration the species. Determined was the range of ecological tolerance of the species in relation to habitat conditions as stenotopic or relatively stenotopic in respect of the earlier accepted eutrophic status. The SOFM appeared to be a useful technique for ordination of ecological data and provides a novel framework for the discovery and forecasting of ecosystem properties constituting a validation of the SOFM method in this type of studies

    Chemical properties and similarity of habitats of Utricularia species in Lower Silesia, Poland

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    The study object consisted of 28 microhabitats of five Utricularia species localized in the Province of Lower Silesia, Poland. The aim of the study was to analyse the chemical properties of water and to present the differentiation of microhabitats in respect of their chemism, i.e., whether there are differences between the microhabitats, and which of the Utricularia species show the highest tolerance to the chemical properties of water. Analysed were the contents of NO-2, NO-3, NH+4, PO-24, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+, Fe+3, SO-24, total hardness of water, organic substance, pH and trophicity of water. The differentiation of microhabitats of Utricularia intermedia and U. minor appeared to be small, but much higher in case of U. vulgaris, U. australis and U. ochroleuca. The similarity of microhabitats has been determined by cluster analysis. The tree plot showed the least similarity of U. minor and U. intermedia, which occupy an extreme position in relation to microhabitats of the remaining species. Such a grouping suggests that this species is clearly distinct because of its connection with water properties

    Variability of morphometric leaf traits in small-leaved linden (Tilia cordata Mili.) under the influence of air pollution

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    The study concerns the ecological responses of Tilia cordata Mill. to pollution and describes the advantages of estimating of the degree of environmental pollution. The aim was, to find out whether the degree of pollution conforms to the contents of the investigated elements in leaves, the assessment of variability of morphometric leaf traits and the cationic equilibrium values. The study has shown a statistically significant differentiation between the analysed sites in respect of dust fall, concentrations of elements in soils and leaves, morphometric traits of leaves and the cationic equilibrium. The hierarchical tree plot of cluster analysis qualified the sites as polluted and non-polluted. In polluted sites the contents of metals in leaves were significantly higher and the cationic equilibrium in leaves was disturbed. The surface, width and asymmetry of leaves, and also the variability of these measures were higher in polluted sites. In sites, which are not directly affected by pollution the cationic equilibrium is close to the const. value, whereas leaf traits have shown the lowest values and a considerably lower variability. The investigations show that leaf traits and cationic equilibrium correspond to the level of pollution and can be used as a tool for evaluation of the environment status

    Disturbances of ionic equilibrium in mosses of contaminated areas

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    Mosses are sensitive and precise bioindicators of heavy metals contamination of the environment. They accumulate in their tissues large amounts of these elements than do higher plants. The aim of this study was to present the influence of environmental pollution on quantitative relations of heavy metals and cationic equilibrium in tissues of mosses: Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens and Hypnum cupressiforme. Twelve sampling sites were selected in the area of Lower Silesia (Poland), diverse in respect of pollution degree determined for dust fall and contents of metals in dust. The contents of Ca, K, Na, Mg, Al, Mn, Fe, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cd, and Zn have been examined in the mosses. Significant differences in the elements contents of mosses between the examined sites, and between moss species were found. This differentiation affects the cationic equilibrium. It is expressed by weighed sum of square roots of relative cation concentrations. The quantitative relations between contents of elements in mosses depended on species and pollution level. These relations and accumulation of metals in moss tissues is the indicator of environmental pollution, which influences the ecological condition of mosses and their occurrence in the given area. The air contaminated by heavy metals causes stress and the decline of moss populations, and can be of significance for their survival. The results of this type of investigations are of importance for the active protection of mosses and their biotopes

    Advances in ecological modelling of soil properties by self-organizing feature maps of natural environment of Lower Silesia (Poland)

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    The paper provides the use of self-organizing feature maps for determination of soil properties in its initial stage of development formed of massive rocks and how SOFM can be used for the study of environmental objects. The study area was Lower Silesia (Poland) overgrown with common, unique and protected vegetation of lichens, bryophytes and vascular plants. The parent rock of the studied soils consists of Miocene volcanites from the middle part of the Sudety Margin Fault. Soil samples were collected from 20 sites. The soil reaction (pH) and concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Ti, Zn in surface soils were analyzed. Statistical analysis was carried out by one-way ANOVA. The SOFM was used to demonstrate the non-linear ordination and visualization of soil properties. The SOFM showed the influence of parent rock on soil chemical properties generated by it. SOFM appeared to be effective and proper/fit for phenomena and processes taking place in natural environment and is useful in ecology and ought to be taken into account as a possible tool of estimation of various plants and their biotopes. The model can be useful as alternative techniques in modelling the ecological complex data, and provide a novel framework for the discovery and forecasting of ecosystem structure and behaviours in response to environmental changes
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