424 research outputs found

    Steady-State Method to Measure the In-Plane Thermal Conductivity of Thin Sheet Materials

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    A new generation of silicon pixel detectors is required to cope with the unprecedented luminosities at the high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) in 2025. The HL-LHC provides a high radiation, high interaction rate environment for the innermost detector region of the CMS detector. This can lead to an uncontrolled increase in temperature of the detector that can destroy the silicon pixels. Moreover, too high operating temperature can add noise to the data obtained from the detector and can slow the read out cheap down. Therefore, the Phase II upgrade to the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment requires an improved heat removal scheme. This challenge can be solved by using carbon fiber as one of the materials for silicon detector support structure. This material has relatively high thermal conductivity and structural stability. To properly simulate the behavior of a support structure in the experiment environment, it is crucial to know the thermal conductivity of these materials. The thermal conductivity of carbon fiber is anisotropic, meaning that it is different for different directions through the material. Therefore, we measure the thermal conductivity along and perpendicular to the fibers. To measure the in-plane thermal conductivity of thin sheet carbon fiber, the steady-state method is employed. The validation of the apparatus is done with two materials of known conductivity. In-plane thermal conductivity measurements of several thin carbon fiber sheets are performed. Measurement results show the Carbon Fiber K13D2U thermal conductivity of 515 W/mK in the plane and along the fiber

    Assessment of myofascial pain syndrome among married female healthcare workers: a cross sectional comparative study in a tertiary care centre

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    Background: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is common among females between ages 20-40 years. Psychosomatic and mechanical reasons are attributed as causative factors. Female health care workers (FHW) in hospitals with rapid patient turn over are vulnerable to develop MPS. Our aim was to ascertain the prevalence of MPS in married FHW working in various departments of the hospital and its association with poor sleep and work stress. Methods: We selected married FHWs in 20-50 years age group and divided them into two groups, medical and paramedical (those involved directly and indirectly with patient care respectively). MPS was diagnosed after detailed personal interview and clinical examination. Sleep duration was divided into less than 5 hours and more than 5hours. Presence of work-related stress and other medical parameters were also recorded. Results: A total of 150 medical and 150 paramedical FHWs were included in the study. Overall prevalence of MPS among FHWs was 42%, of which, medical group was 32% and paramedical was 52%. The paramedical group showed significantly higher prevalence of MPS (p: 0.02). Sleep was less than 5 hours in 29.3% of medical FHW and 13.3% of paramedical. This difference didn’t show any association to MPS (p=0.8). 38% FHW perceived excessive work stress, 40% were paramedical and 36% were medical. This didn’t correlate with prevalence of MPS (p=0.2) among them. Conclusions: Paramedical FHW experienced more MPS than medical and it was more of mechanical type and not due to work stress or sleep deprivation

    An unusual association of renal cell carcinoma and renal malakoplakia with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in an elderly patient

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    The association of malignancy and glomerulonephritis may be missed, especially in elderly patients. Here, we report a case of eosinophilic variant of renal cell carcinoma and renal parenchymal malakoplakia discovered on renal biopsy in a patient with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. The presence of malakoplakia in our biopsy was probably due to systemic steroid therapy for glomerulonephritis, presence of concomitant asymptomatic urinary tract infection, and/or history of diabetes mellitus. The patient had remission of proteinuria following laparoscopic removal of the tumor, indicating probable remission of glomerulonephritis

    Coinfection of BK virus and cytomegalovirus in renal transplant recipients

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    Viral infections are common opportunistic infections in renal transplant recipients which can cause allograft dysfunction and are often a major cause of graft dysfunction in the South Asian region. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and BK viral infections are often seen in the early and late posttransplant periods, respectively. Coinfection of both these viruses is rare and hence early diagnosis is the key to prevent graft loss. We present the cases of two male renal transplant recipients with CMV and BKV coinfection with diverse outcomes

    Anesthesia for awake craniotomy: A retrospective study

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    Context: Awake craniotomy is increasingly performed the world over. We share our experience of performing craniotomy awake with our anesthetic protocol. Aims: To evaluate and analyze the anesthesia records of the patients who underwent awake craniotomy at our institution. Settings and Design: University teaching hospital, Retrospective study. Materials and Methods: We reviewed records of the 42 consecutive patients who underwent awake craniotomy under conscious sedation using Fentanyl and Propofol infusion until December 2005. The drugs were titrated (Bispectral monitoring was used in 16 patients) to facilitate intermittent intraoperative neurological testing. All patients received scalp blocks with a mixture of bupivacaine and lignocaine with adrenaline. Haloperidol and ondansetron were administered in all patients at induction of anesthesia. Results: All patients completed the procedure. One patient each needed endotracheal intubation and LMA for airway control during closure, while another required CPAP perioperatively because of desaturation to < 80%. There was significantly decreased use of anesthetics ( P < 0.001) and a trend towards reduction in complications (e.g. respiratory depression and deep sedation) ( P >0.05) with the use of BIS as compared to without BIS. Intraoperative complications were hypertension (19%), tight brain (14.2%), focal seizure (9.5%) respiratory depression (7.1%), deep sedation (7.1%), tachycardia (7.1%) and bradycardia. Two patients desaturated to < 95%. 23.8% patients developed transient neurological deficits. The most frequent postoperative complications were PONV (19%) and seizures (16.6%). Conclusions: With the use of advanced monitoring and newer anesthetics, awake craniotomy is a relatively safe procedure with an accepted rate of complications

    Early recurrence of IgA nephropathy in a young adult: Transplant recipient

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    A 20-year-old male with hypothyroidism, chronic kidney disease Stage V due to hypertension, and Henoch–Schonlein purpura (IgA vasculitis) underwent a live-related renal transplant in 2015 with mother as a donor. He was inducted with single dose thymoglobulin 75 mg following which he was initiated on triple immunosuppressive therapy – prednisolone 25 mg once a day, tacrolimus 2.5 mg in the morning and 3 mg in the night, and mycophenolate mofetil 750 mg BID. On the 5th day of transplantation, he noticed purpuric rashes in the forearm and thigh associated with hematuria. He had good graft function. Renal allograft biopsy on sixth post operative day showed recurrence of IgA nephropathy (IgAN)

    A comparative study of extradural anesthesia using 0.75% ropivacaine, 0.75% ropivacaine with fentanyl, and 0.75% ropivacaine with buprenorphine for cesarean section from a rural teaching hospital in India

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    Context: The study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of three different epidural solutions - ropivacaine, ropivacaine fentanyl mixture, and ropivacaine buprenorphine mixture - for cesarean section. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, controlled, double blind study carried out in primi parturients undergoing elective cesarean section with singleton fetus. A total of 102 parturients in the age group of 20-35 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I or II scheduled for elective cesarean under continuous epidural anesthesia were divided into three groups using a computer-generated random number list. The test dose (3 ml 2% lignocaine with 15 μg adrenaline) and 0.75% ropivacaine 12 ml were given to all parturients. In addition, normal saline 1 ml, fentanyl 50 μg, and buprenorphine 300 μg were given to Group I, II, and III respectively. Sensory block, motor block, analgesia, maternal effects, fetal outcome, and surgeons′ and parturients′ satisfaction were evaluated. Results: Onset of sensory block was faster in the fentanyl and buprenorphine groups compared to ropivacaine group (9.94 ± 0.48, 10.72 ± 0.26 versus 14.59 ± 0.34). Duration of sensory block was prolonged in buprenorphine group as compared to fentanyl and ropivacaine groups (120.41 ± 4.31) versus (95.68 ± 3.28, 98.28 ± 3.42). Duration of analgesia was prolonged in buprenorphine group compared to fentanyl and ropivacaine groups (516.38 ± 29.14 versus 327.06 ± 12.41, 285.78 ± 10.10). It proved to be safe for mother and fetus. The surgeon and the parturients were satisfied with the mode of anesthesia. Conclusion: Ropivacaine 0.75%, ropivacaine 0.75% with fentanyl 50 mg, or buprenorphine 300 mg provided safe anesthesia when given extradurally for cesarean section. Addition of both fentanyl and buprenorphine to ropivacaine hastened the onset of sensory block, while addition of buprenorphine provided prolonged excellent postoperative analgesia
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