263 research outputs found

    Ignition of boron-containing high-energy materials based on an oxidizer and polymer binder

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    The use of aluminum borides is a promising direction in the development of modern propellant compositions and aerial vehicles. We present experimental data on the kinetics of oxidation of microscale powders of aluminum, amorphous boron, and the aluminum borides AlB2 and AlB12 in air upon heating at a constant rate of 10¬įC/min and the results of laser-assisted ignition of high-energy materials that contain these metal powders and are based on ammonium perchlorate, ammonium nitrate, and an inert binder or an energetic combustible binder. We show that the use of the boron-containing powders enables us to lower the onset temperature of oxidation and the temperature of intense oxidation, while increasing their oxidation effectiveness, compared to pure aluminum. The dependences of ignition delay time on the heat flux show that the AlB2 and AlB12 powders are the most effective metal fuel components for solid propellants based on ammonium perchlorate, ammonium nitrate, and an energetic binder: they display the shortest ignition delay time and require the lowest heat input for ignition

    Chronicles of nature calendar, a long-term and large-scale multitaxon database on phenology

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    We present an extensive, large-scale, long-term and multitaxon database on phenological and climatic variation, involving 506,186 observation dates acquired in 471 localities in Russian Federation, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan. The data cover the period 1890-2018, with 96% of the data being from 1960 onwards. The database is rich in plants, birds and climatic events, but also includes insects, amphibians, reptiles and fungi. The database includes multiple events per species, such as the onset days of leaf unfolding and leaf fall for plants, and the days for first spring and last autumn occurrences for birds. The data were acquired using standardized methods by permanent staff of national parks and nature reserves (87% of the data) and members of a phenological observation network (13% of the data). The database is valuable for exploring how species respond in their phenology to climate change. Large-scale analyses of spatial variation in phenological response can help to better predict the consequences of species and community responses to climate change.Peer reviewe

    Phenological shifts of abiotic events, producers and consumers across a continent

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    Ongoing climate change can shift organism phenology in ways that vary depending on species, habitats and climate factors studied. To probe for large-scale patterns in associated phenological change, we use 70,709 observations from six decades of systematic monitoring across the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Among 110 phenological events related to plants, birds, insects, amphibians and fungi, we find a mosaic of change, defying simple predictions of earlier springs, later autumns and stronger changes at higher latitudes and elevations. Site mean temperature emerged as a strong predictor of local phenology, but the magnitude and direction of change varied with trophic level and the relative timing of an event. Beyond temperature-associated variation, we uncover high variation among both sites and years, with some sites being characterized by disproportionately long seasons and others by short ones. Our findings emphasize concerns regarding ecosystem integrity and highlight the difficulty of predicting climate change outcomes. The authors use systematic monitoring across the former USSR to investigate phenological changes across taxa. The long-term mean temperature of a site emerged as a strong predictor of phenological change, with further imprints of trophic level, event timing, site, year and biotic interactions.Peer reviewe

    Measurement of nuclear modification factors of gamma(1S)), gamma(2S), and gamma(3S) mesons in PbPb collisions at root s(NN)=5.02 TeV

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    The cross sections for Ōí(1S), Ōí(2S), and Ōí(3S) production in lead-lead (PbPb) and proton-proton (pp) collisions at ‚ąösNN = 5.02 TeV have been measured using the CMS detector at the LHC. The nuclear modification factors, RAA, derived from the PbPb-to-pp ratio of yields for each state, are studied as functions of meson rapidity and transverse momentum, as well as PbPb collision centrality. The yields of all three states are found to be significantly suppressed, and compatible with a sequential ordering of the suppression, RAA(Ōí(1S)) > RAA(Ōí(2S)) > RAA(Ōí(3S)). The suppression of Ōí(1S) is larger than that seen at ‚ąösNN = 2.76 TeV, although the two are compatible within uncertainties. The upper limit on the RAA of Ōí(3S) integrated over pT, rapidity and centrality is 0.096 at 95% confidence level, which is the strongest suppression observed for a quarkonium state in heavy ion collisions to date. ¬© 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Funded by SCOAP3.Peer reviewe

    Measurement of b jet shapes in proton-proton collisions at root s=5.02 TeV