4 research outputs found

    The Children and Young People’s Books Lexicon (CYP-LEX):A large-scale lexical database of books read by children and young people in the United Kingdom

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    This article introduces CYP-LEX, a large-scale lexical database derived from books popular with children and young people in the United Kingdom. CYP-LEX includes 1,200 books evenly distributed across three age bands (7–9, 10–12, 13+) and comprises over 70 million tokens and over 105,000 types. For each word in each age band, we provide its raw and Zipf-transformed frequencies, all parts-of-speech in which it occurs with raw frequency and lemma for each occurrence, and measures of count-based contextual diversity. Together and individually, the three CYP-LEX age bands contain substantially more words than any other publicly available database of books for primary and secondary school children. Most of these words are very low in frequency, and a substantial proportion of the words in each age band do not occur on British television. Although the three age bands share some very frequent words, they differ substantially regarding words that occur less frequently, and this pattern also holds at the level of individual books. Initial analyses of CYP-LEX illustrate why independent reading constitutes a challenge for children and young people, and they also underscore the importance of reading widely for the development of reading expertise. Overall, CYP-LEX provides unprecedented information into the nature of vocabulary in books that British children aged 7+ read, and is a highly valuable resource for those studying reading and language development

    Thermosensitive Intravitreal In Situ Implant of Cefuroxime Based on Poloxamer 407 and Hyaluronic Acid

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    The main method of treatment and prevention of endophthalmitis is a combination of intravitreal and topical administration of antibiotics, such as cefuroxime moxifloxacin or vancomycin. However, this method is ineffective due to the rapid elimination of the drug. This problem can be solved with the help of intravitreal in situ injection systems, which are injected with a syringe into the vitreous body and provide prolonged action of the drug at the focus of inflammation. Under the influence of temperature, the liquid drug undergoes a phase transition and turns into a gel after injection. This ensures its prolonged action. The study aimed to develop an intravitreal in situ cefuroxime delivery system for the treatment of endophthalmitis based on a thermosensitive biodegradable composition of poloxamer 407 and hyaluronic acid. A combination of poloxamer Kolliphor® P407, Kolliphor® P188, and PrincipHYAL® hyaluronic acids of different molecular weights was used as a delivery system. The potency of cefuroxime solid dispersion with polyvinylpyrrolidone-10000, polyethylene glycol-400, and polyethylene glycol-1500 in a 1:2 ratio was studied for prolonged action compared to cefuroxime substance. The experimental formulations were studied for the parameters of gelation temperature in a long-term test (4 months), pH, and release of cefuroxime using dialysis bags. To study the distribution parameter in the vitreous body, an in vitro model (1/13) was developed, which was a hollow agar sphere filled with 1% (w/v) polyacrylate gel. For the superior formulations, a HET-CAM test (chorioallantoic membrane test) was performed to determine the absence of irritant effects. According to the study results, a formulation containing a solid dispersion of cefuroxime:PEG-400 (1:2), the matrix of which contained 18% (w/v) Kolliphor® P407 poloxamer, 3% (w/v) Kolliphor® P188 poloxamer, and 0.5% (w/v) hyaluronic acid (1400–1800), was selected. This sample had an average gelation temperature of 34.6 °C, pH 6.7 ± 0.5, and a pronounced prolonged effect. Only 7.6% was released in 3 h of the experiment, whereas about 38% of cefuroxime was released in 72 h. No irritant effect on the chorioallantoic membrane was observed for any formulations studied