3,768 research outputs found

    The Bag Semantics of Ontology-Based Data Access

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    Ontology-based data access (OBDA) is a popular approach for integrating and querying multiple data sources by means of a shared ontology. The ontology is linked to the sources using mappings, which assign views over the data to ontology predicates. Motivated by the need for OBDA systems supporting database-style aggregate queries, we propose a bag semantics for OBDA, where duplicate tuples in the views defined by the mappings are retained, as is the case in standard databases. We show that bag semantics makes conjunctive query answering in OBDA coNP-hard in data complexity. To regain tractability, we consider a rather general class of queries and show its rewritability to a generalisation of the relational calculus to bags

    Prognostic models for outcome prediction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: systematic review and critical appraisal

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    OBJECTIVE: To map and assess prognostic models for outcome prediction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: PubMed until November 2018 and hand searched references from eligible articles. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR STUDY SELECTION: Studies developing, validating, or updating a prediction model in COPD patients and focusing on any potential clinical outcome. RESULTS: The systematic search yielded 228 eligible articles, describing the development of 408 prognostic models, the external validation of 38 models, and the validation of 20 prognostic models derived for diseases other than COPD. The 408 prognostic models were developed in three clinical settings: outpatients (n=239; 59%), patients admitted to hospital (n=155; 38%), and patients attending the emergency department (n=14; 3%). Among the 408 prognostic models, the most prevalent endpoints were mortality (n=209; 51%), risk for acute exacerbation of COPD (n=42; 10%), and risk for readmission after the index hospital admission (n=36; 9%). Overall, the most commonly used predictors were age (n=166; 41%), forced expiratory volume in one second (n=85; 21%), sex (n=74; 18%), body mass index (n=66; 16%), and smoking (n=65; 16%). Of the 408 prognostic models, 100 (25%) were internally validated and 91 (23%) examined the calibration of the developed model. For 286 (70%) models a model presentation was not available, and only 56 (14%) models were presented through the full equation. Model discrimination using the C statistic was available for 311 (76%) models. 38 models were externally validated, but in only 12 of these was the validation performed by a fully independent team. Only seven prognostic models with an overall low risk of bias according to PROBAST were identified. These models were ADO, B-AE-D, B-AE-D-C, extended ADO, updated ADO, updated BODE, and a model developed by Bertens et al. A meta-analysis of C statistics was performed for 12 prognostic models, and the summary estimates ranged from 0.611 to 0.769. CONCLUSIONS: This study constitutes a detailed mapping and assessment of the prognostic models for outcome prediction in COPD patients. The findings indicate several methodological pitfalls in their development and a low rate of external validation. Future research should focus on the improvement of existing models through update and external validation, as well as the assessment of the safety, clinical effectiveness, and cost effectiveness of the application of these prognostic models in clinical practice through impact studies. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017069247

    Theory and practical based approach to chronic total occlusions

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    Coronary chronic total occlusions (CTOs) represent the most technically challenging lesion subset that interventional cardiologists face. CTOs are identified in up to one third of patients referred for coronary angiography and remain seriously undertreated with percutaneous techniques. The complexity of these procedures and the suboptimal success rates over a long period of time, along with the perception that CTOs are lesions with limited scope for recanalization, account for the underutilization of CTO Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI). During the last years, dedicated groups of experts in Japan, Europe and United States fostered the development and standardization of modern CTO recanalization techniques, achieving success rates far beyond 90 %, while coping with lesions of increasing complexity. Numerous studies support the rationale of CTO revascularization following documentation of viability and ischemia in the territory distal to the CTO. Successful CTO PCI provide better tolerance in case of future acute coronary syndromes and can significantly improve angina and left ventricular function. Randomized trials are on the way to further explore the prognostic benefit of CTO revascularization. The following review reports on the theory and the most recent advances in the field of CTO recanalization, in an attempt to promote a more balanced approach in patients with chronically occluded coronary arteries

    Long-time electron spin storage via dynamical suppression of hyperfine-induced decoherence in a quantum dot

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    The coherence time of an electron spin decohered by the nuclear spin environment in a quantum dot can be substantially increased by subjecting the electron to suitable dynamical decoupling sequences. We analyze the performance of high-level decoupling protocols by using a combination of analytical and exact numerical methods, and by paying special attention to the regimes of large inter-pulse delays and long-time dynamics, which are outside the reach of standard average Hamiltonian theory descriptions. We demonstrate that dynamical decoupling can remain efficient far beyond its formal domain of applicability, and find that a protocol exploiting concatenated design provides best performance for this system in the relevant parameter range. In situations where the initial electron state is known, protocols able to completely freeze decoherence at long times are constructed and characterized. The impact of system and control non-idealities is also assessed, including the effect of intra-bath dipolar interaction, magnetic field bias and bath polarization, as well as systematic pulse imperfections. While small bias field and small bath polarization degrade the decoupling fidelity, enhanced performance and temporal modulation result from strong applied fields and high polarizations. Overall, we find that if the relative errors of the control parameters do not exceed 5%, decoupling protocols can still prolong the coherence time by up to two orders of magnitude.Comment: 16 pages, 10 figures, submitted to Phys. Rev.

    Acute ethanol poisoning in children in Vojvodina

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    Cilj rada bio je da se na teritoriji SAP Vojvodine ispita učestalost i osobenost akutnog trovanja etanolom u dece. Retrospektivno su analizirane istorije bolesti dece uzrasta od 0 do 15 godina, hospitalizovane zbog akutnog trovanja u svih jedanaest stacionarnih ustanova u Vojvodini tokom 1985. i 1986. godine. Od 795 dece hospitalizovane zbog akutnog trovanja, 52 se otrovalo etanolom, što u proseku iznosi 6,54% uz bitne regionalne razlike. Izuzimajući Novi Kneževac gde je tokom dvogodišnjeg perioda bilo samo osam trovanja, procentualna zastupljenost trovanja etanolom kretala se od 3,03% u Zrenjaninu do 11,45% u Subotici.The aim of this work was to investigate the frequency and characteristics of acute ethanol poisoning in children in the territory of the Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. In a retrospective study histories of poisoned children aged 0 - 15 years, who were hospitalized in all eleven stationary centres in Vojvodina during 1985/86, were analysed. From 795 children, 52 were poisoned with ethanol (6.54%). With the exception of Novi Knezevac, where only eight cases of poisoning were recorded during the two-year period, the frequency of ethanol poisoning showed major regional differences varying from 3.03% in Zrenjanin to 11.45% in Subotica. Poisoning among boys was significantly more frequent than among girls, especially with ethanol. The average age of children poisoned with ethanol was 8.4 years i.e. almost twice that of children poisoned with other substances. The children\u27s age and circumstances of ethanol poisoning point to the absence and failure of preventive measures

    Major gene expression changes and epigenetic remodelling in Nile tilapia muscle after just one generation of domestication

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    The historically recent domestication of fishes has been essential to meet the protein demands of a growing human population. Selection for traits of interest during domestication is a complex process whose epigenetic basis is poorly understood. Cytosine hydroxymethylation is increasingly recognized as an important DNA modification involved in epigenetic regulation. In the present study, we investigated if hydroxymethylation plays a role in fish domestication and demonstrated for the first time at a genome-wide level and single nucleotide resolution that the muscle hydroxymethylome changes after a single generation of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus) domestication. The overall decrease in hydroxymethylcytosine levels was accompanied by the downregulation of 2015 genes in fish reared in captivity compared to their wild progenitors. In contrast, several myogenic and metabolic genes that can affect growth potential were upregulated. There were 126 differentially hydroxymethylated cytosines between groups, which were not due to genetic variation; they were associated with genes involved in immune-, growth- and neuronal-related pathways. Taken together, our data unveil a new role for DNA hydroxymethylation in epigenetic regulation of fish domestication with impact in aquaculture and implications in artificial selection, environmental adaptation and genome evolution

    Internal stresses in steel plate generated by shape memory alloy inserts

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    Neutron strain scanning was employed to investigate the internal stress fields in steel plate coupons with embedded prestrained superelastic NiTi shape memory alloy inserts. Strain fields in steel were evaluated at T = 21 °C and 130 °C on virgin coupons as well as on mechanically and thermally fatigued coupons. Internal stress fields were evaluated by direct calculation of principal stress components from the experimentally measured lattice strains as well as by employing an inverse finite element modeling approach. It is shown that if the NiTi inserts are embedded into the elastic steel matrix following a carefully designed technological procedure, the internal stress fields vary with temperature in a reproducible and predictable way. It is estimated that this mechanism of internal stress generation can be safely applied in the temperature range from −20 °C to 150 °C and is relatively resistant to thermal and mechanical fatigue. The predictability and fatigue endurance of the mechanism are of essential importance for the development of future smart metal matrix composites or smart structures with embedded shape memory alloy components

    Accurate Results from Perturbation Theory for Strongly Frustrated S=1/2S=1/2 Heisenberg Spin Clusters

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    We investigate the use of perturbation theory in finite sized frustrated spin systems by calculating the effect of quantum fluctuations on coherent states derived from the classical ground state. We first calculate the ground and first excited state wavefunctions as a function of applied field for a 12-site system and compare with the results of exact diagonalization. We then apply the technique to a 20-site system with the same three fold site coordination as the 12-site system. Frustration results in asymptotically convergent series for both systems which are summed with Pad\'e approximants. We find that at zero magnetic field the different connectivity of the two systems leads to a triplet first excited state in the 12-site system and a singlet first excited state in the 20-site system, while the ground state is a singlet for both. We also show how the analytic structure of the Pad\'e approximants at ∣λ∣≃1|\lambda| \simeq 1 evolves in the complex λ\lambda plane at the values of the applied field where the ground state switches between spin sectors and how this is connected with the non-trivial dependence of the number on the strength of quantum fluctuations. We discuss the origin of this difference in the energy spectra and in the analytic structures. We also characterize the ground and first excited states according to the values of the various spin correlation functions.Comment: Final version, accepted for publication in Physical review

    Calculating the energy spectra of magnetic molecules: application of real- and spin-space symmetries

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    The determination of the energy spectra of small spin systems as for instance given by magnetic molecules is a demanding numerical problem. In this work we review numerical approaches to diagonalize the Heisenberg Hamiltonian that employ symmetries; in particular we focus on the spin-rotational symmetry SU(2) in combination with point-group symmetries. With these methods one is able to block-diagonalize the Hamiltonian and thus to treat spin systems of unprecedented size. In addition it provides a spectroscopic labeling by irreducible representations that is helpful when interpreting transitions induced by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) or Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS). It is our aim to provide the reader with detailed knowledge on how to set up such a diagonalization scheme.Comment: 29 pages, many figure
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