259 research outputs found
Storing and transporting of urine samples for doping analysis, as performed by the anti-doping organizations associated with the World Anti-Doping Agency, does not include a specific protocol for cooled transport from the place of urine sampling to the doping laboratory, although low cost cooling facilities can easily be made available. As a result, microbial and thermal degradation of the chemical substances in the urine may occur, which may lead to false negative or false positive results in the subsequent doping analysis. This scientifically and morally unacceptable practice is still maintained in spite of publications demonstrating that immediate cooling is an absolute requirement. Given the enormous societal consequences of positive tests, the lack of a controllable chain of custody during transport should be outlawed. This paper proposes a simple method, based on immediate cooling and cooled transport, which can easily be implemented in developed countries at low cost.BiotechnologyApplied Science
Membrane proteins responsible for the active efflux of structurally and functionally unrelated drugs were first characterized in higher eukalyotes. To date, a vast number of transporters contributing to multidrug resistance (MDR transporters) have been reported for a large variety of organisms. Predictions about the functions of genes in the growing number of sequenced genomes indicate that MDR transporters are ubiquitous in nature. The majority of described MDR transporters in bacteria use ion motive force, while only a few systems have been shown to rely on ATP hydrolysis. However, recent reports on MDR proteins from gram-positive organisms, as well as genome analysis, indicate that the role of ABC-type MDR transporters in bacterial drug resistance might be underestimated. Detailed structural and mechanistic analyses of these proteins can help to understand their molecular mode of action and may eventually lead to the development of new strategies to counteract their actions, thereby increasing the effectiveness of drug-based therapies. This review focuses on recent advances in the analysis of ABC-type MDR transporters in bacteria
LmrCD is a lactococcal, heterodimeric multidrug transporter, which belongs to the ABC superfamily. It consists of two half-transporters, LmrC and LmrD, that are necessary and sufficient for drug extrusion and ATP hydrolysis. LmrCD is asymmetric in terms of the conservation of the functional motifs of the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). Important residues of the nucleotide-binding site of LmrC and the C loop of LmrD are not conserved. To investigate the functional importance of the LmrC and LmrD subunits, the putative catalytic base residue adjacent to the Walker B motif of both NBDs were substituted for the respective carboxamides. Our data demonstrate that Glu587 of LmrD is essential for both drug transport and ATPase activity of the LmrCD heterodimer, whereas mutation of Asp495 of LmrC has a less severe effect on the activity of the complex. Structural and/or functional asymmetry is further demonstrated by differential labeling of both subunits by 8-azido-[α-32P]ATP, which, at 4 °C, occurs predominantly at LmrC, while aluminiumfluoride (AlFx)-induced trapping of the hydrolyzed nucleotide at 30 °C results in an almost exclusive labeling of LmrD. It is concluded that the LmrCD heterodimer contains two structurally and functionally distinct NBDs.
In archaea, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play a crucial role in substrate uptake, export, and osmoregulation. Archaeal substrate-binding-protein-dependent ABC transporters are equipped with a very high affinity for their cognate substrates which provide these organisms with the ability to efficiently scavenge substrates from their environment even when present only at low concentration. Further adaptations to the archaeal way of life are especially found in the domain organization and anchoring of the substrate-binding proteins to the membrane. Examination of the signal peptides of binding proteins of 14 archaeal genomes showed clear differences between euryarchaeotes and crenarchaeotes. Furthermore, a profiling and comparison of ABC transporters in the three sequenced pyrococcal strains was performed.