1,796 research outputs found

    Constraints on the χ_(c1) versus χ_(c2) polarizations in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

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    The polarizations of promptly produced χ_(c1) and χ_(c2) mesons are studied using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in proton-proton collisions at √s=8  TeV. The χ_c states are reconstructed via their radiative decays χ_c → J/ψγ, with the photons being measured through conversions to e⁺e⁻, which allows the two states to be well resolved. The polarizations are measured in the helicity frame, through the analysis of the χ_(c2) to χ_(c1) yield ratio as a function of the polar or azimuthal angle of the positive muon emitted in the J/ψ → μ⁺μ⁻ decay, in three bins of J/ψ transverse momentum. While no differences are seen between the two states in terms of azimuthal decay angle distributions, they are observed to have significantly different polar anisotropies. The measurement favors a scenario where at least one of the two states is strongly polarized along the helicity quantization axis, in agreement with nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics predictions. This is the first measurement of significantly polarized quarkonia produced at high transverse momentum

    Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism modifies fasting total cholesterol concentrations in response to replacement of dietary saturated with monounsaturated fatty acids in adults at moderate cardiovascular disease risk

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    Consumption of ≤10% total energy from fat as saturated fatty acids (SFA) is recommended for cardiovascular disease risk reduction in the UK; however there is no clear guidance on the optimum replacement nutrient. Lipid-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to modify the lipid responses to dietary fat interventions. Hence, we performed a retrospective analysis in 120 participants from the Dietary Intervention and VAScular function (DIVAS) study to investigate whether lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) SNPs modify the fasting lipid response to replacement of SFA with monounsaturated (MUFA) or n-6 polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids. The DIVAS study was a randomized, single-blinded, parallel dietary intervention study performed in adults with a moderate cardiovascular risk who received one of three isoenergetic diets rich in SFA, MUFA or n-6 PUFA for 16 weeks. After the 16-week intervention, a significant diet-gene interaction was observed for changes in fasting total cholesterol (P = 0.001). For the APOE SNP rs1064725, only TT homozygotes showed a significant reduction in total cholesterol after the MUFA diet (n = 33; -0.71 ± 1.88 mmol/l) compared to the SFA (n = 38; 0.34 ± 0.55 mmol/l) or n-6 PUFA diets (n = 37; -0.08 ± 0.73 mmol/l) (P = 0.004). None of the interactions were statistically significant for the other SNPs. In summary, our findings have demonstrated a greater sensitivity of the APOE SNP rs1064725 to dietary fat composition, with a total cholesterol lowering effect observed following substitution of SFA with MUFA but not n-6 PUFA. Further large intervention studies incorporating prospective genotyping are required to confirm or refute our findings. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01478958