4 research outputs found

    Evaluation of intercellular lipid lamellae in the stratum corneum by polarized microscopy

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    Background Intercellular lipids contain a lamellar structure that glows in polarized images. It could be expected that the intercellular lipid content be estimated from the luminance values calculated from polarized images of stratum corneum strips. Therefore, we attempted to develop a method for simple and rapid evaluation of the intercellular lipid content through a procedure. Herein, we demonstrated a relationship between the luminance value and the amount of ceramides, one of the main components of intercellular lipids. Materials and methods The stratum corneum was collected from the forearm using slides with a pure rubber-based adhesive, which did not produce unnecessary luminescence under polarizing conditions. Images were analyzed using luminance indices. The positive secondary ion peak images were obtained using the time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry; the polarized and brightfield images were obtained using a polarized microscope. The ceramide and protein amount was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and bicinchoninic acid protein assay after microscope imaging. Images and quantitative values were used to construct evaluation models based on a convolutional neural network (CNN). Results There was a correlation between the highlighted areas of the polarized image to overlap with the area where ceramide-derived peak was detected. Evaluation of the CNN-based model of the polarized images predicted the amount of ceramides per unit of stratum corneum. Conclusion The method proposed in the study enabled a large number of specimens to provide a simple, rapid, and efficient evaluation of the intercellular lipid content

    Analysis of the Rice Mutant dwarf and gladius leaf 1. Aberrant Katanin-Mediated Microtubule Organization Causes Up-Regulation of Gibberellin Biosynthetic Genes Independently of Gibberellin Signaling

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    Molecular genetic studies of plant dwarf mutants have indicated that gibberellin (GA) and brassinosteroid (BR) are two major factors that determine plant height; dwarf mutants that are caused by other defects are relatively rare, especially in monocot species. Here, we report a rice (Oryza sativa) dwarf mutant, dwarf and gladius leaf 1 (dgl1), which exhibits only minimal response to GA and BR. In addition to the dwarf phenotype, dgl1 produces leaves with abnormally rounded tip regions. Positional cloning of DGL1 revealed that it encodes a 60-kD microtubule-severing katanin-like protein. The protein was found to be important in cell elongation and division, based on the observed cell phenotypes. GA biosynthetic genes are up-regulated in dgl1, but the expression of BR biosynthetic genes is not enhanced. The enhanced expression of GA biosynthetic genes in dgl1 is not caused by inappropriate GA signaling because the expression of these genes was repressed by GA(3) treatment, and degradation of the rice DELLA protein SLR1 was triggered by GA(3) in this mutant. Instead, aberrant microtubule organization caused by the loss of the microtubule-severing function of DGL1 may result in enhanced expression of GA biosynthetic genes in that enhanced expression was also observed in a BR-deficient mutant with aberrant microtubule organization. These results suggest that the function of DGL1 is important for cell and organ elongation in rice, and aberrant DGL1-mediated microtubule organization causes up-regulation of gibberellin biosynthetic genes independently of gibberellin signaling
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