14,718 research outputs found

    Discovery of Long-Lived Shape Isomeric States which Decay by Strongly Retarded High-Energy Particle Radioactivity

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    The reaction 28Si + 181Ta has been studied at E(Lab) = 125 and 135 MeV. Coincidences between high energy particles and various X- and gamma-rays from abnormally long-lived states were observed. e.g. 7.8 - 8.6 MeV alpha-particles with gamma-rays of a superdeformed band, 5.1 - 5.5 MeV alpha-particles with X- and gamma-rays of W, Re, and Pt, and 3.88 MeV particles (interpreted as protons) with 185.8 keV gamma-rays. The data are interpreted in terms of the production of long-lived (t(1/2) of several months) high spin isomeric states in the second well of the potential in the parent nuclei, which decay to the normal states in the daughters, and in the third well of the potential, which decay to the second well.Comment: 25 pages including 11 figures and 3 table

    Coherent Description for Hitherto Unexplained Radioactivities by Super- and Hyperdeformed Isomeric States

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    Recently long-lived high spin super- and hyperdeformed isomeric states with unusual radioactive decay properties have been discovered. Based on these newly observed modes of radioactive decay, consistent interpretations are suggested for previously unexplained phenomena seen in nature. These are the Po halos, the low-energy enhanced 4.5 MeV alpha-particle group proposed to be due to an isotope of a superheavy element with Z = 108, and the giant halos.Comment: 8 pages, 2 figures, 1 table, to be published in Int. J. Mod. Phys.

    A Note on Gravitational Baryogenesis

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    The coupling between Ricci scalar curvature and the baryon number current dynamically breaks CPT in an expanding universe and leads to baryon asymmetry. We study the effect of time dependence of equation of state parameter of the FRW universe on this asymmetry.Comment: 10 pages, accepted for publication in Physical Review

    Unjamming a granular hopper by vibration

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    We present an experimental study of the outflow of a hopper continuously vibrated by a piezoelectric device. Outpouring of grains can be achieved for apertures much below the usual jamming limit observed for non vibrated hoppers. Granular flow persists down to the physical limit of one grain diameter, a limit reached for a finite vibration amplitude. For the smaller orifices, we observe an intermittent regime characterized by alternated periods of flow and blockage. Vibrations do not significantly modify the flow rates both in the continuous and the intermittent regime. The analysis of the statistical features of the flowing regime shows that the flow time significantly increases with the vibration amplitude. However, at low vibration amplitude and small orifice sizes, the jamming time distribution displays an anomalous statistics

    Thermal effects on slow-roll dynamics

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    A description of the transition from the inflationary epoch to radiation domination requires the understanding of quantum fields out of thermal equilibrium, particle creation and thermalisation. This can be studied from first principles by solving a set of truncated real-time Schwinger-Dyson equations, written in terms of the mean field (inflaton) and the field propagators, derived from the two-particle irreducible effective action. We investigate some aspects of this problem by considering the dynamics of a slow-rolling mean field coupled to a second quantum field, using a \phi^2\chi^2 interaction. We focus on thermal effects. It is found that interactions lead to an earlier end of slow-roll and that the evolution afterwards depends on details of the heatbath.Comment: 25 pages, 11 eps figures. v2: paper reorganized, title changed, conclusions unchanged, to appear in PR

    Super- and Hyperdeformed Isomeric States and Long-Lived Superheavy Elements

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    The recent discoveries of the long-lived high spin super- and hyperdeformed isomeric states and their unusual radioactive decay properties are described. Based on their existence a consistent interpretation is given to the production of the long-lived superheavy element with Z = 112, via secondary reactions in CERN W targets, and to the low energy and very enhanced alpha-particle groups seen in various actinide fractions separated from the same W target. In addition, consistent interpretations are suggested for previously unexplained phenomena seen in nature. These are the Po halos, the low-energy enhanced 4.5 MeV alpha-particle group proposed to be due to an isotope of a superheavy element with Z = 108, and the giant halos.Comment: 4 pages. Contribution to the 2nd Int. Conf. on the Chemistry and Physics of the Transactinide Elements (TAN 03) Napa California, November 200

    Dark Matter Axions Revisited

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    We study for what specific values of the theoretical parameters the axion can form the totality of cold dark matter. We examine the allowed axion parameter region in the light of recent data collected by the WMAP5 mission plus baryon acoustic oscillations and supernovae, and assume an inflationary scenario and standard cosmology. If the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is restored after inflation, we recover the usual relation between axion mass and density, so that an axion mass ma=67±2μeVm_a =67\pm2{\rm \mu eV} makes the axion 100% of the cold dark matter. If the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is broken during inflation, the axion can instead be 100% of the cold dark matter for ma<15meVm_a < 15{\rm meV} provided a specific value of the initial misalignment angle θi\theta_i is chosen in correspondence to a given value of its mass mam_a. Large values of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scale correspond to small, perhaps uncomfortably small, values of the initial misalignment angle θi\theta_i.Comment: 14 pages, 3 figure

    Particle-Antiparticle Asymmetry Due to Non-Renormalizable Effective Interactions

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    We consider a model for generating a particle-antiparticle asymmetry through out-of-equilibrium decays of a massive particle due to non-renormalizable, effective interactions.Comment: preliminary version, 38 pages; LaTeX source, epsf.sty and EPS files included in tar archiv
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