1,419 research outputs found

    Wage Distributions by Bargaining Regime: Linked Employer-Employee Data Evidence from Germany

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    Using linked employer-employee data from the German Structure of Earnings Survey 2001, this paper provides a comprehensive picture of the wage structure in three wage-setting regimes prevalent in the German system of industrial relations. We analyze wage distributions for various labor market subgroups by means of kernel density estimation, variance decompositions, and individual and firm-level wage regressions. Unions' impact through collective and firm-level bargaining mainly works towards a higher wage level and reduced overall and residual wage dispersion. Yet observed effects are considerably heterogeneous across different labor market groups. There is no clear evidence for wage floors formed by collectively bargained low wage brackets which would operate as minimum wages for different groups of workers.Collective wage bargaining, wage structure, kernel density estimation, variance decomposition, wage equations, German Structure of Earnings Survey

    Union Density and Varieties of Coverage: The Anatomy of Union Wage Effects in Germany

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    Collective bargaining in Germany takes place either at the industry level or at the firm level; collective bargaining coverage is much higher than union density; and not all employees in a covered firm are necessarily covered. This institutional setup suggests to explicitly distinguish union power as measured by net union density (NUD) in a labor market segment, coverage at the firm level, and coverage at the individual level. Using linked employer-employee data and applying quantile regressions, this is the first empirical paper which simultaneously analyzes these three dimensions of union influence on the structure of wages. Ceteris paribus, a higher share of employees in a firm covered by industry-wide or firm-level contracts is associated with higher wages. Yet, individual bargaining coverage in a covered firm shows a negative impact both on the wage level and on wage dispersion. A higher union density reinforces the effects of coverage, but the effect of union density is negative at all points in the wage distribution for uncovered employees. In line with an insurance motive, higher union density compresses the wage structure and, at the same time, it is associated with a uniform leftward movement of the distribution for uncovered employees.linked employer-employee data, quantile regression, wage structure, collective bargaining coverage, union density, Structure of Earnings Survey 2001, Germany

    Union Density and Varieties of Coverage: The Anatomy of Union Wage Effects in Germany

    Get PDF
    Collective bargaining in Germany takes place either at the industry level or at the firm level; collective bargaining coverage is much higher than union density; and not all employees in a covered firm are necessarily covered. This institutional setup suggests to distinguish explicitly union power as measured by net union density (NUD) in a labor market segment, coverage at the firm level, and coverage at the individual level. Using linked employer-employee data and applying quantile regressions, this is the first empirical paper which simultaneously analyzes these three dimensions of union influence on the structure of wages. Ceteris paribus, a higher share of employees in a firm covered by industry-wide or firm-level contracts is associated with higher wages. Yet, individual bargaining coverage in a covered firm shows a negative impact both on the wage level and on wage dispersion. A higher union density is negative at all points in the wage distribution for uncovered employees. In line with an insurance motive, higher union density compresses the wage structure and, at the same time, it is associated with a uniform leftward movement of the distribution for uncovered employees.Union density, collective bargaining coverage, wage structure, quantile regression,linked employer-employer data, Structure of Earnings Survey 2001, Germany.

    Pajamas for Change

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    I created a protest called the Where Are the Children Project to bring attention to the immigrant children held in detention centers. Throughout the project I was able to see how much others cared about helping these children gain better living conditions, and I was able to learn about leadership and resistance. My values helped drive me into action, and the importance of what I was working towards helped me become more confident. After months of protests, the Homestead Detention Center where reports of maltreatment had been especially high was closed, but my work to improve the rights of immigrants still continues

    Viability in hybrid systems

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    AbstractHybrid systems are interacting systems of digital automata and continuous plants subject to disturbances. The digital automata are used to force the state trajectory of the continuous plant to obey a performance specification. For the basic concepts and notation for hybrid systems, see Kohn and Nerode (1993), and other papers in the same volume. Here we introduce tools for analyzing enforcing viability of all possible plant state trajectories of a hybrid system by suitable choices of finite state control automata. Thus, the performance specification considered here is that the state of the plant remain in a prescribed viability set of states at all times (Aubin, 1991). The tools introduced are local viability graphs and viability graphs for hybrid systems. We construct control automata which guarantee viability as the fixpoints of certain operators on graphs. When control and state spaces are compact, the viability set is closed, and a non-empty closed subset of a viability graph is given with a sturdiness property, one can extract finite state automata guaranteeing viable trajectories. This paper is a sequel to Kohn and Nerode (1993), especially Appendix II

    DANGEROUS HABIT OR USEFUL ROUTINE? DEVELOPING THEORY-BASED MEASURES FOR THE INTENDED AND UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES OF STATE-TRACKING HABITS

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    According to the theory of IT-mediated state-tracking, the intended and unintended consequences of constantly checking digital devices can be judged by the resulting problem of attention and by whether the checking led to information that served the individual’s enduring goal. While this perspective offers numerous benefits over the common practice of labeling excessive information technology use as addiction, as of yet, the concepts of problem of attention (PoA) and service to enduring goal (SEG) lack empirical measures. Thus, this paper develops measurement scales for the constructs PoA and SEG following an established construct development methodology. We evaluate the measures’ validity and reliability and demonstrate that PoA and SEG differ from existing similar concepts. With the help of our newly developed constructs the quality of constant checking habits can be assessed which enables future studies to scrutinize the theorized preventive role of self-control in the context of smartphone habits

    A Novel Automated Lazy Learning QSAR (ALL-QSAR) Approach:  Method Development, Applications, and Virtual Screening of Chemical Databases Using Validated ALL-QSAR Models

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    A novel Automated Lazy Learning Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (ALL-QSAR) modeling approach has been developed based on the lazy learning theory. The activity of a test compound is predicted from locally weighted linear regression model using chemical descriptors and biological activity of the training set compounds most chemically similar to this test compound. The weights with which training set compounds are included in the regression depend on the similarity of those compounds to a test compound. We have applied the ALL-QSAR method to several experimental chemical datasets including 48 anticonvulsant agents with known ED50 values, 48 dopamine D1-receptor antagonists with known competitive binding affinities (Ki), and a Tetrahymena pyriformis dataset containing 250 phenolic compounds with toxicity IGC50 values. When applied to database screening, models developed for anticonvulsant agents identified several known anticonvulsant compounds that were not only absent in the training set but highly chemically dissimilar to the training set compounds. This initial success indicates that ALL-QSAR can be further exploited as a general tool for accurate bioactivity prediction and database screening in drug design and discovery. Due to its local nature, the ALL-QSAR approach appears to be especially well suited for the development of highly predictive models for the sparse or unevenly distributed datasets

    Constricted Boron Nanotubes

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    The recent discovery of pure boron nanotubes raises questions about their detailed atomic structure. Previous simulations predicted tubular structures with smooth or puckered surfaces. Here, we present some novel results based on ab initio simulations of bundled single-wall zigzag boron nanotubes (ropes). Besides the known smooth and puckered modifications, we found new forms that are radially constricted, and which seem to be energetically superior to the known isomers. Furthermore, those structures might be interpreted as intermediate states between ideal tubular phases and the known bulk phases based on boron icosahedra.Comment: 11 pages, 4 figure

    Efficient 1-hexene trimerization with triazacyclohexane chromium catalysts and detailed product analysis by <sup>13</sup>C NMR

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    Triazacyclohexane chromium precatalysts are described which catalyze the selective trimerization of 1-pentene, 1-hexene, and 1-octene with unprecedented activity, reaching nearly 5000 turnovers in 1 h. The isomer distribution of the trimers has been analyzed in detail by application of quantitative <sup>13</sup>C NMR spectroscopy to <sup>13</sup>C labeled samples. All endocyclic elimination products predicted by the metallacyclic mechanism have been characterized, and many have been confirmed by their independent syntheses. Significant variations in the isomer distribution are observed on variation of the ligand bulk. Quantification gave considerable insights into the relative abundance of metallacyclic intermediates, with 1,3-substituted chromacyclopentanes being by far the most abundant resting state. Ring expansion selectivity favors 1,2-insertion into the less hindered Cr–C bond, but some 2,1-insertion products have also been identified
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