38 research outputs found

    Selecting teachers and prospective teachers : a meta-analysis

    Get PDF
    The purpose of this review article was to examine the methods used for the selection of teachers for employment and prospective teachers entering initial teacher education (ITE) programs, and to assess the predictive validity of these methods. We reviewed 32 studies reporting selection methods administered in high-stakes conditions and that included an external (not self-reported) teacher effectiveness outcome measure. The overall effect size was small but significant (r = 0.12, p <.001). Moderator analyses showed that academic and non-academic predictors were both significantly associated with teacher effectiveness measures and that effect sizes were small (but significant) for selection into employment and ITE. We conclude the review by proposing a research agenda that has the potential to enhance educational outcomes by improving the selection of prospective teachers

    Open-Minded Midwifes, Literate Butchers, and Greedy Hooligans - The Independent Contributions of Stereotype Valence and Consistency on Evaluative Judgments

    No full text
    Do people evaluate an open-minded midwife less positively than a caring midwife? Both open-minded and caring are generally seen as positive attributes. However, consistency varies-the attribute caring is consistent with the midwife stereotype while open-minded is not. In general, both stimulus valence and consistency can influence evaluations. Six experiments investigated the respective influence of valence and consistency on evaluative judgments in the domain of stereotyping. In an impression formation paradigm, valence and consistency of stereotypic information about target persons were manipulated orthogonally and spontaneous evaluations of these target persons were measured. Valence reliably influenced evaluations. However, for strongly valenced stereotypes, no effect of consistency was observed. Parameters possibly preventing the occurrence of consistency effects were ruled out, specifically, valence of inconsistent attributes, processing priority of category information, and impression formation instructions. However, consistency had subtle effects on evaluative judgments if the information about a target person was not strongly valenced and experimental conditions were optimal. Concluding, in principle, both stereotype valence and consistency can play a role in evaluative judgments of stereotypic target persons. However, the more subtle influence of consistency does not seem to substantially influence evaluations of stereotyped target persons. Implications for fluency research and stereotype disconfirmation are discussed

    Fundamentals of Crystalline Evolution and Properties of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Polyether Ether Ketone Nanocomposites in Fused Filament Fabrication

    No full text
    As fused filament fabrication (FFF) continues to gain popularity, many studies are turning to nanomaterials or optimization of printing parameters to improve the materials‚Äô properties; however, many overlook how materials formulation and additive manufacturing (AM) processes cooperatively engineer the evolution of properties across length scales. Evaluating the in-process evolution of the nanocomposite using AM will provide a fundamental understanding of the material‚Äôs microstructure, which can be tailored to create unique characteristics in functionality and performance. In this study, the crystallinity behavior of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) was studied in the presence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a nucleation aid for improved crystallization during FFF processing. Using various characterization techniques and molecular dynamics simulations, it was discovered that the crystallization behavior of extruded filaments is very different from that of 3D printed roads. Additionally, the printed material exhibited cold crystallization, and the CNT addition increased the crystallization of printed roads, which were amorphous without CNT addition. Tensile strength and modulus were increased by as much as 42 and 51%, respectively, due to higher crystallinity during printing. Detailed knowledge on the morphology of PEEK‚ÄďCNT used in FFF allows gaining a fundamental understanding of the morphological evolution occurring during the AM process that in turn enables formulating materials for the AM process to achieve tailored mechanical and functional properties, such as crystallinity or conductivity

    Impaired Nitric Oxide Synthetase Activity in Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia‚ÄĒData-Driven Hypothesis

    No full text
    Low nasal nitric oxide (nNO) is a typical feature of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD). nNO is part of the PCD diagnostic algorithm due to its discriminative power against other lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the underlying pathomechanisms are elusive. To better understand NO dysregulation in PCD, the L-arginine/NO (Arg/NO) pathway in patients with PCD (pwPCD) and CF (pwCF) and in healthy control (HC) subjects was investigated. In a prospective, controlled study, we measured in 24 pwPCD, 25 age-matched pwCF, and 14 HC the concentrations of the NO precursors Arg and homoarginine (hArg), the arginase metabolite ornithine (Orn), the NO inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and the major NO metabolites (nitrate, nitrite) in sputum, plasma, and urine using validated methods. In comparison to HC, the sputum contents (in ¬Ķmol/mg) of L-Arg (PCD 18.43 vs. CF 329.46 vs. HC 9.86, p p p = 0.023; nitrate 12.86 vs. 40.33, p = 0.008), but higher in CF (nitrite 16.28, p p = 0.002). The metabolite concentrations in urine and plasma were similar in all groups. The results of our study indicate that PCD, unlike CF, is associated with impaired NO synthesis in the lung, presumably due to mechano-chemical uncoupling

    Human breast cancer cells generated by oncogenic transformation of primary mammary epithelial cells

    No full text
    A number of genetic mutations have been identified in human breast cancers, yet the specific combinations of mutations required in concert to form breast carcinoma cells remain unknown. One approach to identifying the genetic and biochemical alterations required for this process involves the transformation of primary human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) to carcinoma cells through the introduction of specific genes. Here we show that introduction of three genes encoding the SV40 large-T antigen, the telomerase catalytic subunit, and an H-Ras oncoprotein into primary HMECs results in cells that form tumors when transplanted subcutaneously or into the mammary glands of immunocompromised mice. The tumorigenicity of these transformed cells was dependent on the level of ras oncogene expression. Interestingly, transformation of HMECs but not two other human cell types was associated with amplifications of the c-myc oncogene, which occurred during the in vitro growth of the cells. Tumors derived from the transformed HMECs were poorly differentiated carcinomas that infiltrated through adjacent tissue. When these cells were injected subcutaneously, tumors formed in only half of the injections and with an average latency of 7.5 weeks. Mixing the epithelial tumor cells with Matrigel or primary human mammary fibroblasts substantially increased the efficiency of tumor formation and decreased the latency of tumor formation, demonstrating a significant influence of the stromal microenvironment on tumorigenicity. Thus, these observations establish an experimental system for elucidating both the genetic and cell biological requirements for the development of breast cancer

    Mycophenolate mofetil following glucocorticoid treatment in Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis: the role of early initiation and therapeutic drug monitoring

    No full text
    Background Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is the most common vasculitis in childhood and traditionally considered as a self-limiting disease. However, renal involvement can unfavorably determine long-term prognosis. The reported regimens to treat HSP nephritis (HSPN) are diverse, indicating that the most effective treatment remains controversial. Methods This retrospective, single-center study involved 18 patients presenting with HSPN and nephrotic-range proteinuria. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and identify a cut-off level for estimated mycophenolic acid area under the curve (eMPA-AUC(0-12h)) values, which can predict complete remission with high sensitivity. Results Despite prior insufficient therapeutic response to corticosteroids, 89% of patients showed a significant decrease in proteinuria after 1 month of MMF treatment. None of them relapsed during treatment; however, two children relapsed after discontinuation. Based on results of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, an eMPA-AUC(0-12h) >56.4 mg*h/l was a predictor for complete remission within 3 months (80% sensitivity, 83.3% specificity, p = 0.035). During MMF administration, we encountered no adverse event requiring discontinuation of treatment. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that MMF is a safe and potentially effective secondary treatment option for children with HSPN to achieve and maintain long-term remission without serious side effects. To achieve complete remission within 3 months, resolve severe inflammatory glomerular lesions, and avoid progression to chronic kidney disease, we propose timely diagnosis and early initiation of MMF with an eMPA-AUC0-12h value of 56.4 mg*h/l

    Theories and Experiments for Testable Baryogenesis Mechanisms: A Snowmass White Paper

    No full text
    The baryon asymmetry of the Universe is one of the central motivations to expect physics beyond the Standard Model. In this Snowmass white paper, we review the challenges and opportunities in testing some of the central paradigms that predict physics at scales low enough to expect new experimental data in the next decade. Focusing on theoretical ideas and some of their experimental implications, in particular, we discuss neutron-antineutron transformations, flavor observables, next generation colliders, future neutron facilities, gravitational waves, searches for permanent electric dipole moments, 0őĹő≤ő≤0\nu \beta \beta decay and some future large underground experiments as methods to test post-sphaleron baryogenesis, electroweak baryogenesis, mesogenesis and low scale leptogenesis. Finally, we comment on the cases where high scale physics can be probed through some of these same mechanisms

    Theories and Experiments for Testable Baryogenesis Mechanisms: A Snowmass White Paper

    No full text
    The baryon asymmetry of the Universe is one of the central motivations to expect physics beyond the Standard Model. In this Snowmass white paper, we review the challenges and opportunities in testing some of the central paradigms that predict physics at scales low enough to expect new experimental data in the next decade. Focusing on theoretical ideas and some of their experimental implications, in particular, we discuss neutron-antineutron transformations, flavor observables, next generation colliders, future neutron facilities, gravitational waves, searches for permanent electric dipole moments, 0őĹő≤ő≤0\nu \beta \beta decay and some future large underground experiments as methods to test post-sphaleron baryogenesis, electroweak baryogenesis, mesogenesis and low scale leptogenesis. Finally, we comment on the cases where high scale physics can be probed through some of these same mechanisms
    corecore