9,269 research outputs found

    Laser and microwave spectroscopy of even-parity Rydberg states of neutral ytterbium and Multichannel Quantum Defect Theory analysis

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    New measurements of high-lying even parity 6sns1 ⁣S06sns\, {}^1 \! S_0 and 6snd3,1 ⁣D26snd\,{}^{3,1}\!D_2 levels of neutral 174^{174}Yb are presented in this paper. Spectroscopy is performed by a two-step laser excitation from the ground state 4f146s21 ⁣S04f^{14}6s^2 \, {}^1 \! S_0, and the Rydberg levels are detected by using the field ionization method. Additional two-photon microwave spectroscopy is used to improve the relative energy accuracy where possible. The spectroscopic measurements are complemented by a multichannel quantum defect theory (MQDT) analysis for the J=0 and the two-coupled J=2 even parity series. We compare our results with the previous analysis of Aymar {\it{et al}} \cite{Aymar_1980} and analyze the observed differences. From the new MQDT models, a revised value for the first ionization limit I6s=50443.07041(25)I_{6s}=50443.07041(25) cm1^{-1} is proposed.Comment: 15 pages, 3 figure

    Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-forming Regions

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    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars

    Helpers and egg investment in the cooperatively breeding acorn woodpecker: testing the concealed helper effects hypothesis

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    In cooperatively breeding acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus), helper males have a large positive effect on fledging success in good acorn crop years but only a small positive effect in poor acorn crop years, while helper females exhibit the opposite pattern. Based on these findings, we tested the “concealed helper effects” hypothesis, which proposes that laying females reduce investment in eggs (with respect to their size, number, or quality) in a way that confounds helper effects and results in an absence of a relationship between helpers and breeding success. Results generally failed to support the hypothesis. Mean egg size was positively related to temperatures during the 10 days prior to egg-laying and negatively related to the food supply as indexed by the prior fall’s acorn crop, but there were no significant differences vis-à-vis helpers except for interactions with the acorn crop that only partly corresponded to those predicted. With respect to clutch size, females laid larger clutches when assisted by female helpers, opposite the pattern predicted. Although our results suggest that egg size is adjusted to particular ecological circumstances, we conclude that neither egg nor clutch size is adjusted in a way that confounds the apparent effects of helpers, as proposed by the concealed helper effects hypothesis

    Optimization of the HADES secondary pion beam spectrometer

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    Preliminary Report of the AMS analysis of tsunami deposits in Tohoku – Japan – 18 th to the 21 st Century

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    Sedimentary records of tsunamis are a precious tool to assess the occurrence of past events, as attested by an abundant literature, which has seen a particular 'boom' in the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. Despite an extensive literature, there is very little to no understanding of the role that the changing coastal environment is playing on the record of a tsunami, and for a given location, it is still unclear whether the largest tsunamis leave the largest amount of deposits. To research this question, the present study took place in Japan, in the Tohoku Region at Agawa-pond, because the pond act as a sediment trap. Using a sediment-slicer, a 1 m thick deposit was retrieved, from which 4 tsunami sequences were identified, including the latest 2011 tsunami. Using a series of sedimentary proxies: the AMS (Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility), grain size analysis, quartz morphoscopy (morphology and surface characteristics) and the analysis of microfossils, disparities between the tsunami deposits were identified and most importantly a clear thinning of the tsunami deposit towards the top. Provided the present evidences, the authors discuss that the upward fining is due to at least two components that are seldom assessed in tsunami research (1) a modification of the depositional environment, with the progressive anthropization of the coast, providing less sediments to remobilize; and (2) a progressive filling of the Agawa pond, which progressively loses its ability to trap tsunami materials

    The Correlation between X-ray spectral slope and FeKalpha line energy in radio-quiet active galactic nuclei

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    A significant correlation between FeKalpha line energy and X-ray spectral slope has been discovered among radio-quiet active galactic nuclei. The ionization stage of the bulk of the FeKalpha emitting material is not the same in all active galactic nuclei and is related to the shape of the X-ray continua. Active galactic nuclei with a steep X-ray spectrum tend to have a fluorescence FeKalpha line from highly ionized material. In the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies with steeper X-ray spectrum (Gamma_X > 2.1), the FeKalpha line originates from highly ionized material. In the Seyfert 1 galaxies and quasars with flatter X-ray spectrum (Gamma_X < 2.1), bulk of the FeKalpha emission arises from near neutral or weakly ionized material. The correlation is an important observational characteristic related to the accretion process in radio quiet active galactic nuclei and is driven by a fundamental physical parameter which is likely to be the accretion rate relative to the Eddington rate.Comment: 4 pages, To apear in ApJ Letter

    Frontiers of the physics of dense plasmas and planetary interiors: experiments, theory, applications

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    Recent developments of dynamic x-ray characterization experiments of dense matter are reviewed, with particular emphasis on conditions relevant to interiors of terrestrial and gas giant planets. These studies include characterization of compressed states of matter in light elements by x-ray scattering and imaging of shocked iron by radiography. Several applications of this work are examined. These include the structure of massive "Super Earth" terrestrial planets around other stars, the 40 known extrasolar gas giants with measured masses and radii, and Jupiter itself, which serves as the benchmark for giant planets.Comment: Accepted to Physics of Plasmas special issue. Review from HEDP/HEDLA-08, April 12-15, 200

    Photoassociation of cold atoms with chirped laser pulses: time-dependent calculations and analysis of the adiabatic transfer within a two-state model

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    This theoretical paper presents numerical calculations for photoassociation of ultracold cesium atoms with a chirped laser pulse and detailed analysis of the results. In contrast with earlier work, the initial state is represented by a stationary continuum wavefunction. In the chosen example, it is shown that an important population transfer is achieved to 15\approx 15 vibrational levels in the vicinity of the v=98 bound level in the external well of the 0g(6s+6p3/2)0_g^-(6s+6p_{3/2}) potential. Such levels lie in the energy range swept by the instantaneous frequency of the pulse, thus defining a ``photoassociation window''. Levels outside this window may be significantly excited during the pulse, but no population remains there after the pulse. Finally, the population transfer to the last vibrational levels of the ground a3Σu+a^3\Sigma_u^+(6s + 6s) is significant, making stable molecules. The results are interpreted in the framework of a two state model as an adiabatic inversion mechanism, efficient only within the photoassociation window. The large value found for the photoassociation rate suggests promising applications. The present chirp has been designed in view of creating a vibrational wavepacket in the excited state which is focussing at the barrier of the double well potential.Comment: 49 pages, 9 figures, submitted to Phys. Rev.

    On the correllation effect in Peierls-Hubbard chains

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    We reexamine the dimerization, the charge and the spin gaps of a half-filled Peierls-Hubbard chain by means of the incremental expansion technique. Our numerical findings are in significant quantitative conflict with recently obtained results by M. Sugiura and Y. Suzumura [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. v. 71 (2002) 697] based on a bosonization and a renormalization group method, especially with respect to the charge gap. Their approach seems to be valid only in the weakly correlated case.Comment: 7pages,4figures(6eps-files