1,642 research outputs found

    Heavy Ion Physics Program in CMS Experiment

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    We present the capabilities of the CMS experiment to explore the heavy-ion physics program offered by the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The prime goal of this research is to test the fundamental theory of the strong interaction (QCD) in extreme conditions of temperature, density and parton momentum fraction by colliding nuclei at energies of sqrt(s_NN) = 5.5 TeV. This presentation will give the overview of the potential of the CMS to carry out a full set of representative Pb-Pb measurements both in "soft" and "hard" regimes. Measurements include "bulk" observables -- charged hadron multiplicity, low pT inclusive hadron identified spectra and elliptic flow -- which provide information on the collective properties of the system; as well as perturbative processes - such as quarkonia, heavy-quarks, jets, gamma-jet, and high pT hadrons -- which yield "tomographic" information of the hottest and densest phases of the reaction.Comment: 8 pages, 8 figures - To appear in the conference proceedings for Quark Matter 2009, March 30 - April 4, Knoxville, Tennesse

    Heavy Ion Physics with CMS detector

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    We will present the capabilities of the CMS experiment to explore the heavy-ion physics programme offered by the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Collisions of lead nuclei at energies sNN\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}} = 5.5 TeV, will probe quark and gluon matter at unprecedented values of energy density. The prime goal of this research is to study the fundamental theory of the strong interaction (QCD) in extreme conditions of temperature, density and parton momentum fraction. This presentation will give the overview of the potential of the CMS to carry out a full set of representative Pb-Pb measurements both in ''soft'' and ''hard'' regimes. Measurements include ``bulk'' observables -- charged hadron multiplicity, low pTp_{\rm T} inclusive hadron identified spectra and elliptic flow -- which provide information on the collective properties of the system; as well as perturbative processes -- such as quarkonia, heavy-quarks, jets, Îł\gamma-jet, and high pTp_{\rm T} hadrons --- which yield ``tomographic'' information of the hottest and densest phases of the reaction

    Algorithm for jet identification and reconstruction in densly populated calorimetric system

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    The jet reconstruction algorithm is developed under the condition of high particle density in the calorimetric system. The performance of reconstruction of hard QCD jets with initial parton energies 50-300 GeV is studied in central Pb--Pb collisions with a modified cone jet finder which includes an algorithm for event-by-event background subtraction. The heavy ion background is simulated using the HIJING Monte-Carlo generator with dNch/dy = 5000. Results on the achieved jet reconstruction efficiency, purity, energy and spatial resolution are presented

    Design, Performance, and Calibration of CMS Hadron-Barrel Calorimeter Wedges

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    Extensive measurements have been made with pions, electrons and muons on four production wedges of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) hadron barrel (HB) calorimeter in the H2 beam line at CERN with particle momenta varying from 20 to 300 GeV/c. Data were taken both with and without a prototype electromagnetic lead tungstate crystal calorimeter (EB) in front of the hadron calorimeter. The time structure of the events was measured with the full chain of preproduction front-end electronics running at 34 MHz. Moving-wire radioactive source data were also collected for all scintillator layers in the HB. These measurements set the absolute calibration of the HB prior to first pp collisions to approximately 4%

    Energy Response and Longitudinal Shower Profiles Measured in CMS HCAL and Comparison With Geant4

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    The response of the CMS combined electromagnetic and hadron calorimeter to beams of pions with momenta in the range 5-300 GeV/c has been measured in the H2 test beam at CERN. The raw response with the electromagnetic compartment calibrated to electrons and the hadron compartment calibrated to 300 GeV pions may be represented by sigma = (1.2) sqrt{E} oplus (0.095) E. The fraction of energy visible in the calorimeter ranges from 0.72 at 5 GeV to 0.95 at 300 GeV, indicating a substantial nonlinearity. The intrinsic electron to hadron ratios are fit as a function of energy and found to be in the range 1.3-2.7 for the electromagnetic compartment and 1.4-1.8 for the hadronic compartment. The fits are used to correct the non-linearity of the e pi response to 5% over the entire measured range resulting in a substantially improved resolution at low energy. Longitudinal shower profile have been measured in detail and compared to Geant4 models, LHEP-3.7 and QGSP-2.8. At energies below 30 GeV, the data, LHEP and QGSP are in agreement. Above 30 GeV, LHEP gives a more accurate simulation of the longitudinal shower profile

    Synchronization and Timing in CMS HCAL

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    The synchronization and timing of the hadron calorimeter (HCAL) for the Compact Muon Solenoid has been extensively studied with test beams at CERN during the period 2003-4, including runs with 40 MHz structured beam. The relative phases of the signals from different calorimeter segments are timed to 1 ns accuracy using a laser and equalized using programmable delay settings in the front-end electronics. The beam was used to verify the timing and to map out the entire range of pulse shapes over the 25 ns interval between beam crossings. These data were used to make detailed measurements of energy-dependent time slewing effects and to tune the electronics for optimal performance

    Design, Performance, and Calibration of CMS Hadron Endcap Calorimeters

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    Detailed measurements have been made with the CMS hadron calorimeter endcaps (HE) in response to beams of muons, electrons, and pions. Readout of HE with custom electronics and hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) shows no change of performance compared to readout with commercial electronics and photomultipliers. When combined with lead-tungstenate crystals, an energy resolution of 8\% is achieved with 300 GeV/c pions. A laser calibration system is used to set the timing and monitor operation of the complete electronics chain. Data taken with radioactive sources in comparison with test beam pions provides an absolute initial calibration of HE to approximately 4\% to 5\%

    Design, Performance and Calibration of the CMS Forward Calorimeter Wedges

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    We report on the test beam results and calibration methods using charged particles of the CMS Forward Calorimeter (HF). The HF calorimeter covers a large pseudorapidity region (3\l |\eta| \le 5), and is essential for large number of physics channels with missing transverse energy. It is also expected to play a prominent role in the measurement of forward tagging jets in weak boson fusion channels. The HF calorimeter is based on steel absorber with embedded fused-silica-core optical fibers where Cherenkov radiation forms the basis of signal generation. Thus, the detector is essentially sensitive only to the electromagnetic shower core and is highly non-compensating (e/h \approx 5). This feature is also manifest in narrow and relatively short showers compared to similar calorimeters based on ionization. The choice of fused-silica optical fibers as active material is dictated by its exceptional radiation hardness. The electromagnetic energy resolution is dominated by photoelectron statistics and can be expressed in the customary form as a/\sqrt{E} + b. The stochastic term a is 198% and the constant term b is 9%. The hadronic energy resolution is largely determined by the fluctuations in the neutral pion production in showers, and when it is expressed as in the electromagnetic case, a = 280% and b = 11%
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