1,742 research outputs found

    Four-neutrino analysis of 1.5km-baseline reactor antineutrino oscillations

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    The masses of sterile neutrinos are not yet known, and depending on the orders of magnitudes, their existence may explain reactor anomalies or the spectral shape of reactor neutrino events at 1.5km-baseline detector. Here, we present four-neutrino analysis of the results announced by RENO and Daya Bay, which performed the definitive measurements of θ13\theta_{13} based on the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos at km-order baselines. Our results using 3+1 scheme include the exclusion curve of Δm412\Delta m^2_{41} vs. θ14\theta_{14} and the adjustment of θ13\theta_{13} due to correlation with θ14\theta_{14}. The value of θ13\theta_{13} obtained by RENO and Daya Bay with a three-neutrino oscillation analysis is included in the 1σ1\sigma interval of θ13\theta_{13} allowed by our four-neutrino analysis.Comment: 14 pages, 7 figures. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1303.617

    Solar and supernova neutrino physics with future NaI(Tl) dark matter search detectors

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    We investigate the prospects for measuring the coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering of solar and supernova neutrinos in future NaI(Tl) dark matter detection experiments. Considering the reduced background and improved light yield of the recently developed NaI(Tl) crystals, more than 3σ\sigma observation sensitivities of the supernova neutrino within the Milky Way are demonstrated. In the case of the solar neutrino, approximately 3 observations are marginal with a 1 ton NaI(Tl) experiment assuming an order of magnitude reduced background, five photoelectron thresholds, and 5-year data exposure

    Ionothermal Synthesis of Metal-Organic Framework

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    Ionothermal synthesis employs ionic liquids for synthesis of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) as solvent and template. The cations and anions of ionic liquids may be finely adjusted to produce a great variety of reaction environments and thus frameworks. Organisation of the structures synthesised from related ionic liquid combinations give rise to provocative chemical trends that may be used to predict future outcomes. Further analysis of their structures is possible by reducing the complex framework to its underlying topology, which by itself brings more precision to prediction. Through reduction, many seemingly different, but related classes of structures may be merged into larger groups and provide better understanding of the nanoscopic structures and synthesis conditions that gave rise to them. Ionothermal synthesis has promised to enable us to effectively plan the synthesis ahead for a given purpose. However, for its promise to be kept, several difficult limitations must be overcome, including the inseparable cations from the solvent that reside in the framework pore

    Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Nasal Cavity

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    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is often founded in the head and neck region. However, BSCC in the sinonasal tract is rare. We report here on the case of a 58-yr-old woman who presented with nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Computed tomography and examination of the nasal cavity revealed a tumor mass that originated from the right inferior turbinate with erosion of the nasal floor. The tumor that was attached to the inferior turbinate, the lateral nasal wall and the eroded right side hard palate, and so all this was resected. Histopathologic examination of the excised tumor confirmed BSCC in the nasal cavity. We report here on a nasal cavity BSCC that was treated with partial maxillectomy only

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Like Nanoparticle Vaccination Induces Long-Term Protection Without Pulmonary Disease by Modulating Cytokines and T-cells Partially Through Alveolar Macrophages

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    The mechanisms of protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are poorly understood. Virus-like nanoparticles expressing RSV glycoproteins (eg, a combination of fusion and glycoprotein virus-like nanoparticles [FG VLPs]) have been suggested to be a promising RSV vaccine candidate. To understand the roles of alveolar macrophages (AMs) in inducing long-term protection, mice that were 12 months earlier vaccinated with formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) or FG VLPs were treated with clodronate liposome prior to RSV infection. FI-RSV immune mice with clodronate liposome treatment showed increases in eosinophils, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, interleukin (IL)-4+ T-cell infiltration, proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and, in particular, mucus production upon RSV infection. In contrast to FI-RSV immune mice with severe pulmonary histopathology, FG VLP immune mice showed no overt sign of histopathology and significantly lower levels of eosinophils, T-cell infiltration, and inflammatory cytokines, but higher levels of interferon-γ, which are correlated with protection against RSV disease. FG VLP immune mice with depletion of AMs showed increases in inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as eosinophils. The results in this study suggest that FG nanoparticle vaccination induces long-term protection against RSV and that AMs play a role in the RSV protection by modulating eosinophilia, mucus production, inflammatory cytokines, and T-cell infiltration

    Mesenchymal stem cell-derived magnetic extracellular nanovesicles for targeting and treatment of ischemic stroke

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    Exosomes and extracellular nanovesicles (NV) derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) may be used for the treatment of ischemic stroke owing to their multifaceted therapeutic benefits that include the induction of angiogenesis, anti-apoptosis, and anti-inflammation. However, the most serious drawback of using exosomes and NV for ischemic stroke is the poor targeting on the ischemic lesion of brain after systemic administration, thereby yielding a poor therapeutic outcome. In this study, we show that magnetic NV (MNV) derived from iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP)-harboring MSC can drastically improve the ischemic-lesion targeting and the therapeutic outcome. Because IONP stimulated expressions of therapeutic growth factors in the MSC, MNV contained greater amounts of those therapeutic molecules compared to NV derived from naive MSC. Following the systemic injection of MNV into transient middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion (MCAO)-induced rats, the magnetic navigation increased the MNV localization to the ischemic lesion by 5.1 times. The MNV injection and subsequent magnetic navigation promoted the anti-inflammatory response, angiogenesis, and anti-apoptosis in the ischemic brain lesion, thereby yielding a considerably decreased infarction volume and improved motor function. Overall, the proposed MNV approach may overcome the major drawback of the conventional MSC-exosome therapy or NV therapy for the treatment of ischemic stroke.