1,308 research outputs found

    Implication of the F-Box Protein FBXL21 in Circadian Pacemaker Function in Mammals

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    In mammals, the circadian clock relies on interlocked feedback loops involving clock genes and their protein products. Post-translational modifications control intracellular trafficking, functionality and degradation of clock proteins and are keys to the functioning of the clock as recently exemplified for the F-Box protein Fbxl3. The SCFFbxl3 complex directs degradation of CRY1/2 proteins and Fbxl3 murine mutants have a slower clock. To assess whether the role of Fbxl3 is phylogenetically conserved, we investigated its function in the sheep, a diurnal ungulate. Our data show that Fbxl3 function is conserved and further reveal that its closest homologue, the F-Box protein Fbxl21, also binds to CRY1 which impairs its repressive action towards the transcriptional activators CLOCK/BMAL1. However, while Fbxl3 appears to be ubiquitously expressed, Fbxl21 expression is tissue-specific. Furthermore, and in sharp contrast with Fbxl3, Fbxl21 is highly expressed within the suprachiasmatic nuclei, site of the master clock, where it displays marked circadian oscillations apparently driven by members of the PAR-bZIP family. Finally, for both Fbxl3 and Fbxl21 we identified and functionally characterized novel splice-variants, which might reduce CRY1 proteasomal degradation dependent on cell context. Altogether, these data establish Fbxl21 as a novel circadian clock-controlled gene that plays a specific role within the mammalian circadian pacemaker

    Transcriptome Analysis of Mouse Stem Cells and Early Embryos

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    Understanding and harnessing cellular potency are fundamental in biology and are also critical to the future therapeutic use of stem cells. Transcriptome analysis of these pluripotent cells is a first step towards such goals. Starting with sources that include oocytes, blastocysts, and embryonic and adult stem cells, we obtained 249,200 high-quality EST sequences and clustered them with public sequences to produce an index of approximately 30,000 total mouse genes that includes 977 previously unidentified genes. Analysis of gene expression levels by EST frequency identifies genes that characterize preimplantation embryos, embryonic stem cells, and adult stem cells, thus providing potential markers as well as clues to the functional features of these cells. Principal component analysis identified a set of 88 genes whose average expression levels decrease from oocytes to blastocysts, stem cells, postimplantation embryos, and finally to newborn tissues. This can be a first step towards a possible definition of a molecular scale of cellular potency. The sequences and cDNA clones recovered in this work provide a comprehensive resource for genes functioning in early mouse embryos and stem cells. The nonrestricted community access to the resource can accelerate a wide range of research, particularly in reproductive and regenerative medicine

    Clues to Neuro-Degeneration in Niemann-Pick Type C Disease from Global Gene Expression Profiling

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    BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) disease is a neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids in the late endocytic pathway. The majority of NPC cases are due to mutations in the NPC1 gene. The precise function of this gene is not yet known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using cDNA microarrays, we analyzed the genome-wide expression patterns of human fibroblasts homozygous for the I1061T NPC1 mutation that is characterized by a severe defect in the intracellular processing of low density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol. A distinct gene expression profile was identified in NPC fibroblasts from different individuals when compared with fibroblasts isolated from normal subjects. As expected, NPC1 mutant cells displayed an inappropriate homeostatic response to accumulated intracellular cholesterol. In addition, a number of striking parallels were observed between NPC disease and Alzheimer's disease. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Many genes involved in the trafficking and processing of amyloid precursor protein and the microtubule binding protein, tau, were more highly expressed. Numerous genes important for membrane traffic and the cellular regulation of calcium, metals and other ions were upregulated. Finally, NPC fibroblasts exhibited a gene expression profile indicative of oxidative stress. These changes are likely contributors to the pathophysiology of Niemann-Pick Type C disease

    Evaluation of Poly-Mechanistic Antiangiogenic Combinations to Enhance Cytotoxic Therapy Response in Pancreatic Cancer

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    Gemcitabine (Gem) has limited clinical benefits in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The present study investigated combinations of gemcitabine with antiangiogenic agents of various mechanisms for PDAC, including bevacizumab (Bev), sunitinib (Su) and EMAP II. Cell proliferation and protein expression were analyzed by WST-1 assay and Western blotting. In vivo experiments were performed via murine xenografts. Inhibition of in vitro proliferation of AsPC-1 PDAC cells by gemcitabine (10 ¬ĶM), bevacizumab (1 mg/ml), sunitinib (10 ¬ĶM) and EMAP (10 ¬ĶM) was 35, 22, 81 and 6 percent; combination of gemcitabine with bevacizumab, sunitinib or EMAP had no additive effects. In endothelial HUVECs, gemcitabine, bevacizumab, sunitinib and EMAP caused 70, 41, 86 and 67 percent inhibition, while combination of gemcitabine with bevacizumab, sunitinib or EMAP had additive effects. In WI-38 fibroblasts, gemcitabine, bevacizumab, sunitinib and EMAP caused 79, 58, 80 and 29 percent inhibition, with additive effects in combination as well. Net in vivo tumor growth inhibition in gemcitabine, bevacizumab, sunitinib and EMAP monotherapy was 43, 38, 94 and 46 percent; dual combinations of Gem+Bev, Gem+Su and Gem+EMAP led to 69, 99 and 64 percent inhibition. Combinations of more than one antiangiogenic agent with gemcitabine were generally more effective but not superior to Gem+Su. Intratumoral proliferation, apoptosis and microvessel density findings correlated with tumor growth inhibition data. Median animal survival was increased by gemcitabine (26 days) but not by bevacizumab, sunitinib or EMAP monotherapy compared to controls (19 days). Gemcitabine combinations with bevacizumab, sunitinib or EMAP improved survival to similar extent (36 or 37 days). Combinations of gemcitabine with Bev+EMAP (43 days) or with Bev+Su+EMAP (46 days) led to the maximum survival benefit observed. Combination of antiangiogenic agents improves gemcitabine response, with sunitinib inducing the strongest effect. These findings demonstrate advantages of combining multi-targeting agents with standard gemcitabine therapy for PDAC

    Efficiency of Finding Muon Track Trigger Primitives in CMS Cathode Strip Chambers

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    In the CMS Experiment, muon detection in the forward direction is accomplished by cathode strip chambers~(CSC). These detectors identify muons, provide a fast muon trigger, and give a precise measurement of the muon trajectory. There are 468 six-plane CSCs in the system. The efficiency of finding muon trigger primitives (muon track segments) was studied using~36 CMS CSCs and cosmic ray muons during the Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge~(MTCC) exercise conducted by the~CMS experiment in~2006. In contrast to earlier studies that used muon beams to illuminate a very small chamber area (<‚ÄČ‚Ā£0.01< \! 0.01~m2^2), results presented in this paper were obtained by many installed CSCs operating {\em in situ} over an area of ‚Čą‚ÄČ‚Ā£23\approx \! 23~m2^2 as a part of the~CMS experiment. The efficiency of finding 2-dimensional trigger primitives within 6-layer chambers was found to be~99.93¬Ī0.03%99.93 \pm 0.03\%. These segments, found by the CSC electronics within 800800~ns after the passing of a muon through the chambers, are the input information for the Level-1 muon trigger and, also, are a necessary condition for chambers to be read out by the Data Acquisition System

    Search for high-mass narrow resonances in virtual photon-photon interactions

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    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript ‚ąí1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an