6,604 research outputs found

    A Gravitational Effective Action on a Finite Triangulation

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    We construct a function of the edge-lengths of a triangulated surface whose variation under a rescaling of all the edges that meet at a vertex is the defect angle at that vertex. We interpret this function as a gravitational effective action on the triangulation, and the variation as a trace anomaly.Comment: 5 pages; clarifications, acknowledgements, references adde

    Interactively Picking Real-World Objects with Unconstrained Spoken Language Instructions

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    Comprehension of spoken natural language is an essential component for robots to communicate with human effectively. However, handling unconstrained spoken instructions is challenging due to (1) complex structures including a wide variety of expressions used in spoken language and (2) inherent ambiguity in interpretation of human instructions. In this paper, we propose the first comprehensive system that can handle unconstrained spoken language and is able to effectively resolve ambiguity in spoken instructions. Specifically, we integrate deep-learning-based object detection together with natural language processing technologies to handle unconstrained spoken instructions, and propose a method for robots to resolve instruction ambiguity through dialogue. Through our experiments on both a simulated environment as well as a physical industrial robot arm, we demonstrate the ability of our system to understand natural instructions from human operators effectively, and how higher success rates of the object picking task can be achieved through an interactive clarification process.Comment: 9 pages. International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) 2018. Accompanying videos are available at the following links: https://youtu.be/_Uyv1XIUqhk (the system submitted to ICRA-2018) and http://youtu.be/DGJazkyw0Ws (with improvements after ICRA-2018 submission

    A Computational Approach to Verbal Width for Engel Words in Alternating Groups

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    It is known that every element in the alternating group A n , with n ≥ 5 , can be written as a product of at most two Engel words of arbitrary length. However, it is still unknown if every element in an alternating group is an Engel word of Arbitrary length. In this paper, a different approach to this problem is presented, getting new results for small alternating groups

    The evolution of gregariousness in parasitoid wasps

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    Data are assembled on the clutch-size strategies adopted by extant species of parasitoid wasp. These data are used to reconstruct the history of clutch-size evolution in the group using a series of plausible evolutionary assumptions. Extant families are either entirely solitary, both solitary and gregarious, or else clutch size is unknown. Parsimony analysis suggests that the ancestors of most families were solitary, a result which is robust to different phylogenetic relationships and likely data inadequacies. This implies that solitariness was ubiquitous throughout the initial radiation of the group, and that transitions to gregariousness have subsequently occurred a minimum of 43 times in several, but not all lineages. Current data suggest that species-rich and small-bodied lineages are more likely to have evolved gregariousness, and contain more species with small gregarious brood sizes. I discuss the implications of these data for clutch-size theory

    Collaborative Teaching and Learning: A Model for Building Capacity and Partnerships to Address NTDs

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    Submitted by Ana Maria Fiscina Sampaio ([email protected]) on 2014-05-06T13:25:49Z No. of bitstreams: 1 Wilson Mary Elizabeth Collaborative teaching....pdf: 431785 bytes, checksum: b48099b637f1357115235beafce0ceab (MD5)Made available in DSpace on 2014-05-06T13:25:49Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Wilson Mary Elizabeth Collaborative teaching....pdf: 431785 bytes, checksum: b48099b637f1357115235beafce0ceab (MD5) Previous issue date: 2011Department of Global Health and Population. Harvard School of Public Health. Boston, Massachusetts, USAYale School of Public Health Epidemiology of Microbial Disease Division. New Haven, Connecticut, USAFundação Oswaldo Cruz. Centro de Pesquisa Gonçalo Moniz. Salvador, BA, Brasil / Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública. Salvador, BA, Brasil / Faculdade de Medicina da Bahia. Federal University of Bahia. Salvador, BA, Brasi

    Attitudes toward Using and Teaching Confidence Intervals: A Latent Profile Analysis on Elementary Statistics Instructors

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    The use of confidence intervals (CIs) for making a statistical inference is gaining popularity in research communities. To evaluate college statistics instructors’ readiness to teach CIs, this study explores their attitudes toward teaching CIs in elementary statistics courses, and toward using CIs in inferential statistics. Data were collected with a survey that classifies instructors’ attitudes on the basis of three previously established pedagogical components: affective, cognitive, and behavioral. Based on the survey responses from 270 participants, we created three profiles (subgroups) via latent profile analysis, and identified each profile’s pattern of attitudes toward CIs and common characteristics of the instructors that fit each profile. In addition, we compared the profiles across groupings created by six variables: gender, academic background, statistics teaching experience, subject preference, degree level, and desire to improve teaching. The results of the latent profile analysis support three profiles within the population of statistics instructors, and the results of the comparative analysis of teacher characteristics indicate that the six variables are moderate to strong predictors of the grouping of the sample into three profiles

    Upper-Room Ultraviolet Light and Negative Air Ionization to Prevent Tuberculosis Transmission

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    Background Institutional tuberculosis (TB) transmission is an important public health problem highlighted by the HIV/AIDS pandemic and the emergence of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant TB. Effective TB infection control measures are urgently needed. We evaluated the efficacy of upper-room ultraviolet (UV) lights and negative air ionization for preventing airborne TB transmission using a guinea pig air-sampling model to measure the TB infectiousness of ward air. Methods and Findings For 535 consecutive days, exhaust air from an HIV-TB ward in Lima, Perú, was passed through three guinea pig air-sampling enclosures each housing approximately 150 guinea pigs, using a 2-d cycle. On UV-off days, ward air passed in parallel through a control animal enclosure and a similar enclosure containing negative ionizers. On UV-on days, UV lights and mixing fans were turned on in the ward, and a third animal enclosure alone received ward air. TB infection in guinea pigs was defined by monthly tuberculin skin tests. All guinea pigs underwent autopsy to test for TB disease, defined by characteristic autopsy changes or by the culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from organs. 35% (106/304) of guinea pigs in the control group developed TB infection, and this was reduced to 14% (43/303) by ionizers, and to 9.5% (29/307) by UV lights (both p < 0.0001 compared with the control group). TB disease was confirmed in 8.6% (26/304) of control group animals, and this was reduced to 4.3% (13/303) by ionizers, and to 3.6% (11/307) by UV lights (both p < 0.03 compared with the control group). Time-to-event analysis demonstrated that TB infection was prevented by ionizers (log-rank 27; p < 0.0001) and by UV lights (log-rank 46; p < 0.0001). Time-to-event analysis also demonstrated that TB disease was prevented by ionizers (log-rank 3.7; p = 0.055) and by UV lights (log-rank 5.4; p = 0.02). An alternative analysis using an airborne infection model demonstrated that ionizers prevented 60% of TB infection and 51% of TB disease, and that UV lights prevented 70% of TB infection and 54% of TB disease. In all analysis strategies, UV lights tended to be more protective than ionizers. Conclusions Upper-room UV lights and negative air ionization each prevented most airborne TB transmission detectable by guinea pig air sampling. Provided there is adequate mixing of room air, upper-room UV light is an effective, low-cost intervention for use in TB infection control in high-risk clinical settings

    Intermittent applied mechanical loading induces subchondral bone thickening that may be intensified locally by contiguous articular cartilage lesions

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    Objectives: Changes in subchondral bone (SCB) and cross-talk with articular cartilage (AC) have been linked to osteoarthritis (OA). Using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) this study: (1) examines changes in SCB architecture in a non-invasive loading mouse model in which focal AC lesions are induced selectively in the lateral femur, and (2) determines any modifications in the contralateral knee, linked to changes in gait, which might complicate use of this limb as an internal control. Methods: Right knee joints of CBA mice were loaded: once with 2weeks of habitual use (n=7), for 2weeks (n=8) or for 5weeks (n=5). Both left (contralateral) and right (loaded) knees were micro-CT scanned and the SCB and trabecular bone analysed. Gait analysis was also performed. Results: These analyses showed a significant increase in SCB thickness in the lateral compartments in joints loaded for 5weeks, which was most marked in the lateral femur; the contralateral non-loaded knee also showed transient SCB thickening (loaded once and repetitively). Epiphyseal trabecular bone BV/TV and trabecular thickness were also increased in the lateral compartments after 5 weeks of loading, and in all joint compartments in the contralateral knee. Gait analysis showed that applied loading only affected gait in the contralateral himd-limb in all groups of mice from the second week after the first loading episode. Conclusions: These data indicate a spatial link between SCB thickening and AC lesions following mechanical trauma, and the clear limitations associated with the use of contralateral joints as controls in such OA models, and perhaps in OA diagnosis
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