392 research outputs found

    Diversity and dynamics of bacterial communities in early life stages of the Caribbean coral Porites astreoides

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    In this study, we examine microbial communities of early developmental stages of the coral Porites astreoides by sequence analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) imaging. Bacteria are associated with the ectoderm layer in newly released planula larvae, in 4-day-old planulae, and on the newly forming mesenteries surrounding developing septa in juvenile polyps after settlement. Roseobacter clade-associated (RCA) bacteria and Marinobacter sp. are consistently detected in specimens of P. astreoides spanning three early developmental stages, two locations in the Caribbean and 3 years of collection. Multi-response permutation procedures analysis on the TRFLP results do not support significant variation in the bacterial communities associated with P. astreoides larvae across collection location, collection year or developmental stage. The results are the first evidence of vertical transmission (from parent to offspring) of bacteria in corals. The results also show that at least two groups of bacterial taxa, the RCA bacteria and Marinobacter, are consistently associated with juvenile P. astreoides against a complex background of microbial associations, indicating that some components of the microbial community are long-term associates of the corals and may impact host health and survival

    A genome-wide meta-analysis uncovers six sequence variants conferring risk of vertigo.

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    To access publisher's full text version of this article, please click on the hyperlink in Additional Links field or click on the hyperlink at the top of the page marked DownloadVertigo is the leading symptom of vestibular disorders and a major risk factor for falls. In a genome-wide association study of vertigo (Ncases‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ48,072, Ncontrols‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ894,541), we uncovered an association with six common sequence variants in individuals of European ancestry, including missense variants in ZNF91, OTOG, OTOGL, and TECTA, and a cis-eQTL for ARMC9. The association of variants in ZNF91, OTOGL, and OTOP1 was driven by an association with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Using previous reports of sequence variants associating with age-related hearing impairment and motion sickness, we found eight additional variants that associate with vertigo. Although disorders of the auditory and the vestibular system may co-occur, none of the six genome-wide significant vertigo variants were associated with hearing loss and only one was associated with age-related hearing impairment. Our results uncovered sequence variants associating with vertigo in a genome-wide association study and implicated genes with known roles in inner ear development, maintenance, and disease.UK Biobank Resource European Commission European Commission Joint Research Centre United States Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health (NIH) - US

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript ‚ąí1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Search for stop and higgsino production using diphoton Higgs boson decays