11,123 research outputs found

    A Note on the Energy Release Rate in Quasi-Static Elastic Crack Propagation

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    This paper considers analytical issues associated with the notion of the energy release rate in quasi-static elastic crack propagation

    On shock waves in solids

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    This paper describes some recent theoretical results pertaining to the experimentally-observed relation between the speed of a shock wave in a solid and the particle velocity immediately behind the shock. The new feature in the present analysis is the assumption that compressive strains are limited by a materially-determined critical value, and that the internal energy density characterizing the material is unbounded as this critical strain is approached. It is shown that, with this assumption in force, the theoretical relation between shock speed and particle velocity is consistent with many experimental observations in the sense that it is asymptotically linear for strong shocks of the kind often arising in the laboratory

    Statistical modelling for prediction of axis-switching in rectangular jets

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    Rectangular nozzles are increasingly used for modern military aircraft propulsion installations, including the roll nozzles on the F-35B vertical/short take-off and landing strike fighter. A peculiar phenomenon known as axis-switching is generally observed in such non-axisymmetric nozzle flows during which the jet spreads faster along the minor axis compared to the major axis. This might affect the under-wing stores and aircraft structure. A computational fluid dynamics study was performed to understand the effects of changing the upstream nozzle geometry on a rectangular free jet. A method is proposed, involving the formulation of an equation based upon a statistical model for a rectangular nozzle with an exit aspect ratio (ARe) of 4; the variables under consideration (for a constant nozzle pressure ratio (NPR)) being inlet aspect ratio (ARi) and length of the contraction section. The jet development was characterised using two parameters: location of the cross-over point (Xc) and the difference in the jet half-velocity widths along the major and minor axes (ΔB30). Based on the observed results, two statistical models were formulated for the prediction of axis-switching; the first model gives the location of the cross-over point, while the second model indicates the occurrence of axis-switching for the given configuration

    Petiolate wings: effects on the leading-edge vortex in flapping flight

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    The wings of many insect species including crane flies and damselflies are petiolate (on stalks), with the wing planform beginning some distance away from the wing hinge, rather than at the hinge. The aerodynamic impact of flapping petiolate wings is relatively unknown, particularly on the formation of the lift-augmenting leading-edge vortex (LEV): a key flow structure exploited by many insects, birds and bats to enhance their lift coefficient. We investigated the aerodynamic implications of petiolation P using particle image velocimetry flow field measurements on an array of rectangular wings of aspect ratio 3 and petiolation values of P = 1–3. The wings were driven using a mechanical device, the ‘Flapperatus’, to produce highly repeatable insect-like kinematics. The wings maintained a constant Reynolds number of 1400 and dimensionless stroke amplitude Λ* (number of chords traversed by the wingtip) of 6.5 across all test cases. Our results showed that for more petiolate wings the LEV is generally larger, stronger in circulation, and covers a greater area of the wing surface, particularly at the mid-span and inboard locations early in the wing stroke cycle. In each case, the LEV was initially arch-like in form with its outboard end terminating in a focus-sink on the wing surface, before transitioning to become continuous with the tip vortex thereafter. In the second half of the wing stroke, more petiolate wings exhibit a more detached LEV, with detachment initiating at approximately 70% and 50% span for P = 1 and 3, respectively. As a consequence, lift coefficients based on the LEV are higher in the first half of the wing stroke for petiolate wings, but more comparable in the second half. Time-averaged LEV lift coefficients show a general rise with petiolation over the range tested.This work was supported by an EPSRC Career Acceleration Fellowship to R.J.B. (EP/H004025/1)

    The effect of aspect ratio on the leading-edge vortex over an insect-like flapping wing

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    Insect wing shapes are diverse and a renowned source of inspiration for the new generation of autonomous flapping vehicles, yet the aerodynamic consequences of varying geometry is not well understood. One of the most defining and aerodynamically significant measures of wing shape is the aspect ratio, defined as the ratio of wing length (R) to mean wing chord (cˉ\bar{c}). We investigated the impact of aspect ratio, AR, on the induced flow field around a flapping wing using a robotic device. Rigid rectangular wings ranging from AR = 1.5 to 7.5 were flapped with insect-like kinematics in air with a constant Reynolds number (Re) of 1400, and a dimensionless stroke amplitude of 6.5cˉ6.5\bar{c} (number of chords traversed by the wingtip). Pseudo-volumetric, ensemble-averaged, flow fields around the wings were captured using particle image velocimetry at 11 instances throughout simulated downstrokes. Results confirmed the presence of a high-lift, separated flow field with a leading-edge vortex (LEV), and revealed that the conical, primary LEV grows in size and strength with increasing AR. In each case, the LEV had an arch-shaped axis with its outboard end originating from a focus-sink singularity on the wing surface near the tip. LEV detachment was observed for AR>1.5\mathrm{AR}\gt 1.5 around mid-stroke at 70%\sim 70\% span, and initiated sooner over higher aspect ratio wings. At AR>3\mathrm{AR}\gt 3 the larger, stronger vortex persisted under the wing surface well into the next half-stroke leading to a reduction in lift. Circulatory lift attributable to the LEV increased with AR up to AR = 6. Higher aspect ratios generated proportionally less lift distally because of LEV breakdown, and also less lift closer to the wing root due to the previous LEV's continuing presence under the wing. In nature, insect wings go no higher than AR5,\mathrm{AR}\sim 5, likely in part due to architectural and physiological constraints but also because of the reducing aerodynamic benefits of high AR wings

    Large-scale instabilities in a STOVL upwash fountain

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    The fountain flow created by two underexpanded axisymmetric, turbulent jets impinging on a ground plane was studied through the use of laser-based experimental techniques. Velocity and turbulence data were acquired in the jet and fountain flow regions using laser doppler velocimetry and particle image velocimetry. Profiles of mean and rms velocities along the jet centreline are presented for nozzle pressure ratios of two, three and four. The unsteady nature of the fountain flow was examined and the presence of large-scale coherent structures identified. A spectral analysis of the fountain flow data was performed using the Welch method. The results have relevance to ongoing studies of the fountain flow using large eddy simulation techniques

    Eli Sternberg Memoriam

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    Eli Sternberg, perhaps the best known scholar in the field of elasticity during most of the past half-century, died suddenly in Pasadena, California, on October 8, 1988, shortly before his seventy-first birthday

    An Energy Estimate for the Biharmonic Equation and its Application to Saint-Venant's Principle in Plane Elastostatics

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    A new energy estimate is given for a boundary value problem for the biharmonic equation. The result is applied to the estimation of stresses in a plane elasticity problem

    A note on elastic surface waves

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    The structure of harmonically time-dependent free surface waves on a homogeneous, isotropic elastic half-space can be described by proceeding from the following assumptions: (1) the plane boundary is free of surface traction; (2) the Laimé potentials, and consequently all physical quantities, decay exponentially with distance away from the boundary. In the absence of further a priori assumptions, the resulting surface waves need be neither plane nor axially symmetric, and thus the derivation sketched here constitutes a generalization of the ones usually given in the textbook literature [e.g., Love, 1944; Ewing et al., 1957]. With reference to Cartesian coordinates χ_1, χ_2, χ_3, the half-space under consideration occupies the region x_3≥0. The displacement vector u of a typical point has Cartesian components u_j, and the associated components of stress are denoted by τ_(jk). The summation convention is used, Latin and Greek subscripts have the respective ranges 1, 2, 3 and 1, 2, and a subscript preceded by a comma indicates differentiation with respect to the corresponding coordinate
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