12 research outputs found

    Thermal treatment of biomass : a bibliometric analysis : the torrefaction case

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    The aim of the paper was to summarize and discuss current research trends in biomass thermal treatment (torrefaction process). Quantitative analyses were carried out, in which the main countries, research units and scientists were indicated. The analysis showed a clear upward trend in number of publications after 2010. Most scientists on selected topics come from China, USA, Canada, South Korea, Republic of China, Poland (Web od Science—Core Collection (WoS-CC) and Scopus databases). Quantitative analysis also showed that the most relevant WoS-CC categories in the summary are: Energy Fuels, Engineering Chemical, Agricultural Engineering, Biotechnology Applied Microbiology and Thermodynamics and Scopus Subject area: Energy, Chemical Engineering, Environmental Science, Engineering and Chemistry. Thematic analysis included research topics, process parameters and raw materials used. Thematic groups were separated: torrefaction process (temp.: 150–400 °C), hydrothermal carbonization process (HTC) (temp: 120–500 °C), pyrolysis process (temp.: 200–650 °C) and gasification and co-combustion process (temp.: 350–1600 °C). In the years 2015–2019, current research topics were: new torrefaction technologies (e.g., HTC), improvement of the physico-mechanical, chemical and energetic properties of produced fuel as well as the use of torrefied biomass in the process of pyrolysis, gasification and co-combustion. The raw materials used in all types of biomass thermal treatment were: energy crops, wood from fast-growing and exotic trees, waste from the agri-food industry, sewage sludge and microalgae

    Identification of phenolic compounds and determination of antioxidant activity in extracts and infusions of salvia leaves

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    Francik, Slawomir/0000-0002-4535-9450; NZEYIMANA, Abdoul/0000-0002-1887-510X; Knapczyk, Adrian/0000-0002-1134-6299; Francik, Renata/0000-0002-7071-8072; Bystrowska, Beata/0000-0001-6501-8656WOS:000602822400001PubMed: 33352787The influence of harvest period and drying method of Salvia officinalis L. leaves on the content of essential oils, polyphenols and antioxidant properties was investigated. Sage leaves were collected twice during plant blossoming (in June and July) and dried traditionally in natural conditions and at 35 degrees C. Antioxidant activity was assayed in methanol-acetone extracts and infusions of dried leaves with the use of free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) technique. Total phenolic content in extracts as well as in infusions was determined by the means of Folin-Ciocalteu method. Based on the LC/MS analysis, the polyphenol compounds present in both extracts and in infusions were identified. The extracts contained more polyphenols and were characterized by higher antioxidant activity than infusions. in the extracts significant amount of ferulic acid was found, which was influenced both by the harvest period and drying method. The amount of ferulic acid found in extracts obtained from the June leaves dried traditionally was three times lower (6.185 mu g/g DW) than in extracts from July leaves dried in the same conditions. Harvest period had a significant effect on the essential oils' content, leaves collected in July contained 15% more oils than those collected in June.Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Republic of PolandMinistry of Science and Higher Education, PolandThe study was financed by Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Republic of Poland

    Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy guided by radial mini-probe endobronchial ultrasound in interstitial lung diseases ÔÇö a multicenter prospective study

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    Introduction: Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBLC) is commonly used in diagnosing interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). A┬ágeneral anesthesia with endotracheal intubation, balloon blockers and fluoroscopy control is the most common modality. Simplifying the procedure without decreasing itÔÇÖs safety could result in wider use.Prospective, observational study was conducted in three Polish pulmonology centers to evaluate safety and diagnostic yield of TBLC under conscious sedation, without intubation and bronchial blockers and with radial-EBUS guidance instead of fluoroscopy. Material and methods: In patients suspected of ILD, in accordance with high resolution computer tomography (HRCT) selected lung segments were examined with radial-EBUS mini probe without a┬águide sheath. If the lung infiltrations were visible this locations were preferred. If not, specimens were taken from two different segments of the same lobe. Two to five biopsies with freezing time 5ÔÇô8 seconds were performed. Moreover ultrasound examination was used to avoid injury of lung vessels.Results: From March 2017 to September 2019 ÔÇö 114 patients (M: 59, F: 55) of mean (SD) age 54 (14) years were included to the study on the basis of medical history and HRCT. Histopathology was conclusive in 90 (79%) patients and included 16 different diagnoses (sarcoidosis, EAA, COP predominantly). 24 inconclusive biopsies of unclassifiable pulmonary fibrosis were followed up. Complications included five cases (4.4%) of pneumothorax requiring a┬áchest tube drainage and a┬áminor and moderate bleeding in few cases. There was no need for use of balloon bronchial blockers.Conclusions: TBLC under conscious sedation guided by radial EBUS mini-probe is novel, reasonable and safe technique for histological diagnosis of ILDs

    Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy guided by radial "mini-probe" endobronchial ultrasound in interstitial lung diseases - a multicenter prospective study

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    Introduction: Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBLC) is commonly used in diagnosing interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Ageneral anesthesia with endotracheal intubation, balloon blockers and fluoroscopy control is the most common modality. Simplifying the procedure without decreasing itÔÇÖs safety could result in wider use. Prospective, observational study was conducted in three Polish pulmonology centers to evaluate safety and diagnostic yield of TBLC under conscious sedation, without intubation and bronchial blockers and with radial-EBUS guidance instead of fluoroscopy. Material and methods: In patients suspected of ILD, in accordance with high resolution computer tomography (HRCT) selected lung segments were examined with radial-EBUS mini probe without aguide sheath. If the lung infiltrations were visible this locations were preferred. If not, specimens were taken from two different segments of the same lobe. Two to five biopsies with freezing time 5ÔÇô8 seconds were performed. Moreover ultrasound examination was used to avoid injury of lung vessels. Results: From March 2017 to September 2019 ÔÇö 114 patients (M: 59, F: 55) of mean (SD) age 54 (14) years were included to the study on the basis of medical history and HRCT. Histopathology was conclusive in 90 (79%) patients and included 16 different diagnoses (sarcoidosis, EAA, COP predominantly). 24 inconclusive biopsies of unclassifiable pulmonary fibrosis were followed up. Complications included five cases (4.4%) of pneumothorax requiring achest tube drainage and aminor and moderate bleeding in few cases. There was no need for use of balloon bronchial blockers. Conclusions: TBLC under conscious sedation guided by radial EBUS mini-probe is novel, reasonable and safe technique for histological diagnosis of ILDs

    Impact of drying conditions on antioxidant activity of Red Clover (Trifolium pratense), Sweet Violet (Viola odorata) and Elderberry Flowers (Sambucus nigra)

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    Flowers of red clover (Trifolium pratense), sweet violet (Viola odorata) and elderflowers (Sambucus nigra) were dried by means of air drying at 30 ┬░C and 50 ┬░C and by freeze drying. The content of polyphenols was determined using the FolinÔÇôCiocalteu reagent, while anthocyanins were quantified by the pH differential method. Antioxidant activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the dried flowers were measured by the DPPH and ABTS assays, as well as FRAP and reducing power methods. The highest amount of polyphenols was determined in the ethanolic extracts of fresh red clover flowers (854.76 mg/100 g), while the highest concentration of anthocyanins was determined in the aqueous extracts of fresh sweet violet flowers (99.41 mg/100 g). The results showed that, in general, the extracts of red clover flower were characterized by the highest antioxidant activity, while the sweet violet extracts had the poorest antioxidant properties, although these values fluctuated depending on the method used. There was strong correlation between antioxidant activity and TPC (r = 0.9196, FRAP method). In most cases, freeze drying was found to be the best conservation method, retaining well the antioxidant properties of the tested flowers and the compounds determining these properties
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