1,519 research outputs found

    Properties of Hadrons in the Nuclear Medium

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    This review is devoted to the discussion of hadron properties in the nuclear medium and its relation to the partial restoration of chiral symmetry. Special attention is given to disentangle in-medium effects due to conventional many-body interactions from those due to the change of the chiral condensate. In particular, we shall discuss medium effects on the Goldstone bosons (pion, kaon and eta), the vector mesons (rho, omega, phi), and the nucleon. Also, for each proposed in-medium effect the experimental consequence and results will be reviewed.Comment: 43 pages, 8 figures, uses epsf-style file. To appear in Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. Vol 4

    Inclusive omega photoproduction off nuclei

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    We investigate inclusive omega photoproduction off complex nuclei, concentrating on the feasibility to examine a possible in-medium change of the omega meson properties by observing the pi^0 gamma invariant mass spectrum. The simulations are performed by means of a BUU transport model including a full coupled-channel treatment of the final state interactions. In-medium changes of the omega spectral density are found to yield a moderate modification of the observables as compared to the situation in free space. Also the effects of a momentum dependence of the strong omega potential are discussed.Comment: 19 pages, 12 figures, minor corrections, accepted for publication in EPJ

    Investigation of heavy-heavy pseudoscalar mesons in thermal QCD Sum Rules

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    We investigate the mass and decay constant of the heavy-heavy pseudoscalar, BcB_c, ηc\eta_c and ηb\eta_b mesons in the framework of finite temperature QCD sum rules. The annihilation and scattering parts of spectral density are calculated in the lowest order of perturbation theory. Taking into account the additional operators arising at finite temperature, the nonperturbative corrections are also evaluated. The masses and decay constants remain unchanged under T100 MeVT\cong 100 ~MeV, but after this point, they start to diminish with increasing the temperature. At critical or deconfinement temperature, the decay constants reach approximately to 35% of their values in the vacuum, while the masses are decreased about 7%, 12% and 2% for BcB_c, ηc\eta_c and ηb\eta_b states, respectively. The results at zero temperature are in a good consistency with the existing experimental values as well as predictions of the other nonperturbative approaches.Comment: 11 Pages, 2 Tables and 6 Figure

    Factorization and Non-Factorization of In-Medium Four-Quark Condensates

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    It is well-established for the vacuum case that in the limit of a large number of colors N_c the four-quark condensates factorize into products of the two-quark condensate. It is shown that in the combined large-N_c and linear-density approximation four-quark condensates do not factorize in a medium of pions (finite temperature system) but do factorize in a medium of nucleons (nuclear system).Comment: 4 page

    Recent topics of mesic atoms and mesic nuclei -- ϕ\phi mesic nuclei exist ?--

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    We study ϕ\phi-meson production in nuclei to investigate the in-medium modification of the ϕ\phi-meson spectral function at finite density. We consider (pˉ,ϕ{\bar p},\phi), (γ,p\gamma,p) and (π,n\pi^-,n) reactions to produce a ϕ\phi-meson inside the nucleus and evaluate the effects of the medium modifications to reaction cross sections. The structures of the bound states, ϕ\phi-mesic nuclei, are also studied. For strong absorptive interaction cases, we need to know the spectrum shape in a wide energy region to deduce the properties of ϕ\phi.Comment: Talk given at EXA08, Vienna, September 2008. To be published in the Proceedings, Hyperfine Interactions. 6 pages, 6 figure

    What does the rho-meson do? In-medium mass shift scenarios versus hadronic model calculations

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    The NA60 experiment has studied low-mass muon pair production in In-In collisions at 158AGeV158 {\rm AGeV} with unprecedented precision. With these results there is hope that the in-medium modifications of the vector meson spectral function can be constrained more thoroughly than before. We investigate in particular what can be learned about collisional broadening by a hot and dense medium and what constrains the experimental results put on in-medium mass shift scenarios. The data show a clear indication of considerable in-medium broadening effects but disfavor mass shift scenarios where the ρ\rho-meson mass scales with the square root of the chiral condensate. Scaling scenarios which predict at finite density a dropping of the ρ\rho-meson mass that is stronger than that of the quark condensate are clearly ruled out since they are also accompanied by a sharpening of the spectral function.Comment: Proceeding contribution, Talk given by J. Ruppert at Workshop for Young Scientists on the Physics of Ultrarelativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (Hot Quarks 2006), Villasimius, Sardinia, Italy, 15-20 May 2006. To appear in EPJ

    Quark Matter '99 --- Theoretical Summary: What Next?

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    I review the three broad areas where major progress has been reported: The phase structure of strongly interacting matter, the properties of matter at the instant when it freezes out into individual hadrons in the final stage of the expansion of the hot fireball, and the status of the main signatures of the formation of a quark-gluon plasma. In the final section I present some thoughts about what should be done next, both in the experiemntal and the theoretical arena.Comment: 10 pages, 1 figure, summary talk at Quark Matter '99, Torino, Italy, somewhat modified, final versio

    Masses and couplings of vector mesons from the pion electromagnetic, weak, and \pi\gamma transition form factors

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    We analyse the pion electromagnetic, charged-current, and πγ\pi\gamma transition form factors at timelike momentum transfers qq, q2=s1.4q^2=s\le 1.4 GeV2^2, using a dispersion approach. We discuss in detail the propagator matrix of the photon-vector-meson system and define certain reduced amplitudes, or vertex functions, describing the coupling of this system to final states. We then apply the derived analytic expressions to the analysis of the recent e+eπ+πe^+e^-\to \pi^+\pi^-, τππ0ντ\tau^-\to \pi^-\pi^0\nu_\tau, and e+eπ0γe^+e^-\to \pi^0\gamma data. We find the reduced amplitudes for the coupling of the photon and vector mesons to two pseudoscalars to be constant, independent of ss, in the range considered, indicating a "freezing" of the amplitudes for s1s\le 1 GeV. The fit to the form factor data leads to the following values of the Breit-Wigner resonance masses m_{\rho^-}=775.3\pm 0.8 MeV, m_{\rho^0}=773.7\pm 0.6 MeV and m_\omega=782.43\pm 0.05 MeV, where the errors are only statistical.Comment: revtex, 23 page

    Absorption of phi mesons in near-threshold proton-nucleus reactions

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    In the framework of the nuclear spectral function approach for incoherent primary proton--nucleon and secondary pion--nucleon production processes we study the inclusive ϕ\phi meson production in the interaction of 2.83 GeV protons with nuclei. In particular, the A-dependences of the absolute and relative ϕ\phi meson yields are investigated within the different scenarios for its in-medium width as well as for the cross section ratio σpnpnϕ/σppppϕ\sigma_{pn \to pn{\phi}}/{\sigma_{pp \to pp{\phi}}}. Our model calculations take into account the acceptance window of the ANKE facility used in a recent experiment performed at COSY. They show that the pion--nucleon production channel contributes distinctly to the ϕ\phi creation in heavy nuclei in the chosen kinematics and, hence, has to be taken into consideration on close examination of the dependences of the phi meson yields on the target mass number with the aim to get information on its width in the medium. They also demonstrate that the experimentally unknown ratio σpnpnϕ/σppppϕ\sigma_{pn \to pn{\phi}}/{\sigma_{pp \to pp{\phi}}} has a weak effect on the A-dependence of the relative ϕ\phi meson production cross section at incident energy of present interest, whereas it is found to be appreciably sensitive to the phi in-medium width, which means that this relative observable can indeed be useful to help determine the above width from the direct comparison the results of our calculations with the future data from the respective ANKE-at-COSY experiment.Comment: 16 pages, 9 figure

    In-medium Properties of Hadrons -- Observables

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    We first briefly review the theoretical basis for calculations of changes of hadronic properties in dense nuclear matter. These changes have usually been investigated by means of relativistic heavy-ion reactions. Here we discuss that observable consequences of such changes can also be seen in more elementary reactions on nuclei. Particular emphasis is put on a discussion of actual observables in photonuclear reactions; we discuss in detail η\eta- and vector-meson production. We show that photoproduction of η\eta's can yield essential information on in-medium properties of the S11(1535)S_{11}(1535) resonance while the ϕ\phi meson properties will probably not be accessible through the K+KK^+K^- decay channel. However, for ω\omega mesons the π0γ\pi^0\gamma decay channel, due to its reduced final state interaction, looks more promising in this respect. Completely free of final state interactions is dilepton production in the few GeV range. We show that the sensitivity of this decay channel to changes of hadronic properties in medium in photonuclear reactions on nuclei is as large as in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. Finally we discuss that hadron production in nuclei at 10 -- 20 GeV photon energies can give important information on the hadronization process.Comment: Invited Lecture by U. Mosel at Erice International School on Nuclear Physics 200
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