85,401 research outputs found

    The Great Shift: the rise of México and the Decline of Peru in the Spanish American Colonial Empire, 1680-1809

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    Editada en Fundación Empresa PúblicaA partir de la reconstrucción de las cuentas de la Real Tesorería para las tres principales colonias de Hispanoamérica desde el último cuarto del siglo XVII a la primera década del siglo XIX, el ensayo reconstruye el destino cambiante de los ingresos y gastos reales en estas cruciales economías americamis. Los vicerreinatos de Perú y México y la Audiencia de Charcos fueron las principales fuentes del superávit en las colonias americanas. Hasta 1700, las dos regiones andinas dominaron el sistema colonial hispanoamericano en términos de ingresos reales generados y de plata producida para ser exportada a Europa. Sin embargo, estas regiones comenzaron a declinar en el siglo XVIII. Los diferentes tipos de ingresos y de gastos reales y su evolución son analizados para cada una de estas tres colonias a fin de determinar sus tendencias a largo plazo y su importancia relativa.Using the reconstructed royal treasury records for the trhee principal colonies of Spanish America from the last quarter of the 17th century to the first decade of the 19th century this essay constructs the changin fortunes of royal income and expenditures in these crucial American economies. The viceroyalties of Perú and Mexico an the Audiencia of Charcas were the principal sources of surplus revenues in the American colonies. Until 1700 the two Andean regions dominated the Spanish American colonial system in terms of generating royal income and in producing silver for export to Europe. But these soon declined relative to Mexico wich in the 18th century became to dominant economy and major source of royal income. The various royal revenues and expenditures and their performance over time are analyzed for all trhee colonies to determine the long term trends in dieir growth and relative importance.Publicad

    Flying car design and testing

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    This paper is primarily concerned with the inverted design process and manufacture of a flying car prototype which can overcome the problem of traffic management in the world today. A possible solution to the problem of overcrowded roads would be to design a flying or hovering car. Given technological advances in aircraft construction, navigation and operation, flying cars or personal aircraft are now a feasible proposition. The viability of such a concept was investigated in terms of producing a conceptual design for a two-person carrying flying vehicle, manufacturing a flying prototype followed by ground and initial flight testing

    A psychoanalytic concept illustrated: Will, must, may, can — revisiting the survival function of primitive omnipotence

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    The author explores the linear thread connecting the theory of Freud and Klein, in terms of the central significance of the duality of the life and death instinct and the capacity of the ego to tolerate contact with internal and external reality. Theoretical questions raised by later authors, informed by clinical work with children who have suffered deprivation and trauma in infancy, are then considered. Theoretical ideas are illustrated with reference to observational material of a little boy who suffered deprivation and trauma in infancy. He was first observed in the middle of his first year of life while he was living in foster care, and then later at the age of two years and three months, when he had been living with his adoptive parents for more than a year

    Reconstructing the geometric structure of a Riemannian symmetric space from its Satake diagram

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    The local geometry of a Riemannian symmetric space is described completely by the Riemannian metric and the Riemannian curvature tensor of the space. In the present article I describe how to compute these tensors for any Riemannian symmetric space from the Satake diagram, in a way that is suited for the use with computer algebra systems. As an example application, the totally geodesic submanifolds of the Riemannian symmetric space SU(3)/SO(3) are classified. The submission also contains an example implementation of the algorithms and formulas of the paper as a package for Maple 10, the technical documentation for this implementation, and a worksheet carrying out the computations for the space SU(3)/SO(3) used in the proof of Proposition 6.1 of the paper.Comment: 23 pages, also contains two Maple worksheets and technical documentatio

    Recent ν\nus from IceCube

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    IceCube is a 1 km3^3 neutrino detector now being built at the South Pole. Its 4800 optical modules will detect Cherenkov radiation from charged particles produced in neutrino interactions. IceCube will search for neutrinos of astrophysical origin, with energies from 100 GeV up to 101910^{19} eV. It will be able to separate νe\nu_e, νμ\nu_\mu and ντ\nu_\tau. In addition to detecting astrophysical neutrinos, IceCube will also search for neutrinos from WIMP annihilation in the Sun and the Earth, look for low-energy (10 MeV) neutrinos from supernovae, and search for a host of exotic signatures. With the associated IceTop surface air shower array, it will study cosmic-ray air showers. IceCube construction is now 50% complete. After presenting preliminary results from the partial detector, I will discuss IceCube's future plans.Comment: Invited talk presented at Neutrino 2008; 7 page

    Improved ion exchange membrane

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    Membrane, made from commercially-available hollow fibers, is used in reverse osmosis, or dialysis. Fiber has skin layers which pass only small molecules. Macromolecules cannot penetrate skin. Fibers can also be used to remove other undesirable anions, such as phosphate, sulfate, carbonate, and uranium in form of uranium-sulfate complex

    Ion-exchange hollow fibers

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    An ion-exchange hollow fiber is prepared by introducing into the wall of the fiber polymerizable liquid monomers, and polymerizing the monomers therein to form solid, insoluble, crosslinked, ion-exchange resin particles which embed in the wall of the fiber. Excess particles blocking the central passage or bore of the fiber are removed by forcing liquid through the fiber. The fibers have high ion-exchange capacity, a practical wall permeability and good mechanical strength even with very thin wall dimensions. Experimental investigation of bundles of ion-exchange hollow fibers attached to a header assembly have shown the fiber to be very efficient in removing counterions from solution

    Starting Out Right: A Cluster Evaluation of the Early Childhood Grants of the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation: Year 3 Final Report

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    Evaluates Knight's early childhood grantmaking in twelve communities, with a focus on grants that transform systems and build networks at a scale sufficient to create meaningful change. Presents grantee results and lessons learned
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