52,289 research outputs found

    Reconstructing the geometric structure of a Riemannian symmetric space from its Satake diagram

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    The local geometry of a Riemannian symmetric space is described completely by the Riemannian metric and the Riemannian curvature tensor of the space. In the present article I describe how to compute these tensors for any Riemannian symmetric space from the Satake diagram, in a way that is suited for the use with computer algebra systems. As an example application, the totally geodesic submanifolds of the Riemannian symmetric space SU(3)/SO(3) are classified. The submission also contains an example implementation of the algorithms and formulas of the paper as a package for Maple 10, the technical documentation for this implementation, and a worksheet carrying out the computations for the space SU(3)/SO(3) used in the proof of Proposition 6.1 of the paper.Comment: 23 pages, also contains two Maple worksheets and technical documentatio

    Differential in vitro infection of neural cells by astroviruses

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    Encephalitis remains a diagnostic conundrum in humans as over 50% of cases are managed without the identification of an etiology. Astroviruses have been detected from the central nervous system of mammals in association with disease, suggesting that this family of RNA viruses could be responsible for cases of some neurological diseases that are currently without an ascribed etiology. However, there are significant barriers to understanding astrovirus infection as the capacity of these viruses to replicate in nervous system cells in vitro has not been determined. We describe primary and immortalized cultured cells of the nervous system that support infection by astroviruses. These results further corroborate the role of astroviruses in causing neurological diseases and will serve as an essential model to interrogate the neuropathogenesis of astrovirus infection.Recent advances in unbiased pathogen discovery have implicated astroviruses as pathogens of the central nervous system (CNS) of mammals, including humans. However, the capacity of astroviruses to be cultured in CNS-derived cells in vitro has not been reported to date. Both astrovirus VA1/HMO-C (VA1; mamastrovirus 9) and classic human astrovirus 4 (HAstV4; mamastrovirus 1) have been previously detected from cases of human encephalitis. We tested the ability of primary human neurons, primary human astrocytes, and other immortalized human nervous system cell lines (SK-N-SH, U87 MG, and SW-1088) to support infection and replication of these two astrovirus genotypes. Primary astrocytes and SK-N-SH cells supported the full viral life cycle of VA1 with a >100-fold increase in viral RNA levels during a multistep growth curve, detection of viral capsid, and a >100-fold increase in viral titer. Primary astrocytes were permissive with respect to HAstV4 infection and replication but did not yield infectious virus, suggesting abortive infection. Similarly, abortive infection of VA1 was observed in SW-1088 and U87 MG cells. Elevated expression of the chemokine CXCL10 was detected in VA1-infected primary astrocytes and SK-N-SH cells, suggesting that VA1 infection can induce a proinflammatory host response. These findings establish an in vitro cell culture model that is essential for investigation of the basic biology of astroviruses and their neuropathogenic potential

    Millimeter interferometer observations of the magnetar 4U 0142+61

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    The Anomalous Xā€ray Pulsar 4U 0142+61 is the only neutron star where it is believed that one of the long searchedā€for ā€˜fallbackā€™ disks has been detected in the midā€IR by Wang et al. [1] using Spitzer. Such a disk originates from material falling back to the NS after the supernova. We search for cold circumstellar material in the 90 GHz continuum using the Plateau de Bure Interferometer. No millimeter flux is detected at the position of 4U 0142+61, the upper flux limit is 150 Ī¼Jy corresponding to the 3Ļƒ noise rms level. The reā€processed Spitzer MIPS 24Ī¼m data presented previously by Wang et al. [2] show some indication of flux enhancement at the position of the neutron star, albeit below the 3Ļƒ statistical significance limit. At far infrared wavelengths the source flux densities are probably below the Herschel confusion limits

    A psychoanalytic concept illustrated: Will, must, may, can ā€” revisiting the survival function of primitive omnipotence

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    The author explores the linear thread connecting the theory of Freud and Klein, in terms of the central significance of the duality of the life and death instinct and the capacity of the ego to tolerate contact with internal and external reality. Theoretical questions raised by later authors, informed by clinical work with children who have suffered deprivation and trauma in infancy, are then considered. Theoretical ideas are illustrated with reference to observational material of a little boy who suffered deprivation and trauma in infancy. He was first observed in the middle of his first year of life while he was living in foster care, and then later at the age of two years and three months, when he had been living with his adoptive parents for more than a year
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