24,939 research outputs found

    The statistical origins of quantum mechanics

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    It is shown that Schroedinger's equation may be derived from three postulates. The first is a kind of statistical metamorphosis of classical mechanics, a set of two relations which are obtained from the canonical equations of particle mechanics by replacing all observables by statistical averages. The second is a local conservation law of probability with a probability current which takes the form of a gradient. The third is a principle of maximal disorder as realized by the requirement of minimal Fisher information. The rule for calculating expectation values is obtained from a fourth postulate, the requirement of energy conservation in the mean. The fact that all these basic relations of quantum theory may be derived from premises which are statistical in character is interpreted as a strong argument in favor of the statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics. The structures of quantum theory and classical statistical theories are compared and some fundamental differences are identified.Comment: slightly modified version, 24 pages, no figure

    A Search for CO in the Local Group Dwarf Irregular Galaxy WLM

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    We present 12CO J = 1-0 and J = 2-1 observations of the low metallicity (12 + log(O/H) = 7.74) Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy WLM made with the 15 m SEST and 14 m FCRAO telescopes. Despite the presence a number of HII regions, we find no CO emission. We obtain low upper limits on the integrated intensity (I(CO) >= 0.18 K km/s for CO (1-0)). The non-detection is consistent with the result of Taylor, Kobulnicky and Skillman (1998), that dwarf galaxies below a metallicity of ~ 7.9 are not detected in CO emission. WLM shows that this trend continues for low metallicity galaxies even as their metallicities approach 7.9. These results are consistent with the models of the metal poor ISM by Norman and Spaans (1997). By comparing our CO data with observations of star formation in WLM, we find evidence for a high CO to H2_2 conversion factor.Comment: 11 pages, 3 figures, accepted by A&

    The radio-far infrared correlation: Spiral and blue compact dwarf galaxies opposed

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    The recently established correlation between radio continuum and far infrared emission in galaxies was further investigated by comparing normal spiral and blue compact dwarf galaxies. The puzzling result is that the ratio of radio to far infrared luminosity and its dispersion is the same for both samples, although their ratios of blue to far infrared luminosity, their radio spectral indices and their dust temperatures exhibit markedly different mean values and dispersions. This suggests that the amount of energy radiated in the two regimes is enhanced in the same way although the mechanisms responsible for the two components are rather different and complex. The fact that the blue light does not increase at the same proportion shows that both the radio and the far infrared emission are connected with the recent star formation history

    Interplay of Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov and Vortex states in two-dimensional Superconductors

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    Clean superconductors with weakly coupled conducting planes have been suggested as promising candidates for observing the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state. We consider here a layered superconductor in a magnetic field of arbitrary orientation with respect to the conducting plane. In this case there is competition of spin-pair-breaking and orbital-pair-breaking effects. In previous work, phase boundaries characterized by Landau quantum numbers n > 0 have been predicted. Here, we calculate the actual structure of the stable states below Hc2 by minimizing the free energy. We find several new order parameter structures differing from both the traditional Abrikosov and FFLO solutions. Some interesting unsolved questions appear in the limit of large n.Comment: 13 pages, 3 figure

    Antivortices due to competing orbital and paramagnetic pair-breaking effects

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    Thermodynamically stable vortex-antivortex structures in a quasi-two-dimensional superconductor in a tilted magnetic field are predicted. For this geometry, both orbital and spin pair-breaking effects exist, with their relative strength depending on the tilt angle \Theta. The spectrum of possible states contains as limits the ordinary vortex state (for large \Theta) and the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state (for \Theta=0). The quasiclassical equations are solved near H_{c2} for arbitrary \Theta and it is shown that stable states with coexisting vortices and antivortices exist in a small interval close to \Theta=0. The results are compared with recent predictions of antivortices in mesoscopic samples.Comment: 11 pages, 3 figure

    Large-Scale Radio Structure in the Universe: Giant Radio Galaxies

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    Giant radio galaxies (GRGs), with linear sizes larger than 1 Mpc (H0=50 km/s/Mpc), represent the biggest single objects in the Universe. GRGs are rare among the entire population of radio galaxies (RGs) and their physical evolution is not well understood though for many years they have been of special interest for several reasons. The lobes of radio sources can compress cold gas clumps and trigger star or even dwarf galaxy formation, they can also transport gas from a host galaxy to large distances and seed the IGM with magnetic fields. Since GRGs have about 10 to 100 times larger sizes than normal RGs, their influence on the ambient medium is correspondingly wider and is pronounced on scales comparable to those of clusters of galaxies or larger. Therefore `giants' could play an important role in the process of large-scale structure formation in the Universe. Recently, thanks to the new all sky radio surveys, significant progress in searching for new GRGs has been made.Comment: To appear in Multiwavelength AGN Surveys, ed. R. Maiolino and R. Mujica, Singapore: World Scientific, 2004, 2 page

    Improved Templates for Photometric Redshifts of Submm Sources

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    There is growing evidence that some star-forming galaxies at z>1 are characterized by high efficiencies and specific star formation rates. In the local universe, these traits are shared by ``active'' Blue Compact Dwarf galaxies (BCDs) with compact and dense star-forming regions. The Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of these BCDs are dominated by young massive star clusters, embedded in a cocoon of dust. In this Letter, we incorporate these BCD SEDs as templates for two samples of high-redshift galaxy populations selected at submm wavelengths. Because of the severe absorption of the optical light, the featureless mid-infrared spectrum, and the relatively flat radio continuum, the dusty star-cluster SEDs are good approximations to most of the submm sources in our samples. In most cases, the active BCD SEDs fit the observed photometric points better than the ``standard'' templates, M 82 and Arp 220, and predict photometric redshifts significantly closer to the spectroscopic ones. Our results strongly suggest that the embedded dusty star clusters in BCD galaxies are superior to other local templates such as M 82 and Arp 220 in fitting distant submm starburst galaxies.Comment: Accepted by ApJL: 4 pages, 2 figures, 2 table
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