1,943 research outputs found

    Simulation of the response of SiPMs Part II: with saturation effects

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    A Monte Carlo program is presented which simulates the response of SiPMs in the nonlinear regime, where the number of Geiger discharges from photons and/or from dark counts in the time interval given by the pulse shape of a single Geiger discharge, approaches or exceeds the number of SiPM pixels. The model includes the effects of after-pulses, of prompt and delayed cross-talk, and of the voltage drop over the load resistance of the readout electronics. The results of the simulation program are compared to published results from SiPMs with different number of pixels for different intensities and time distributions of photons, dark-count rates, SiPM pulse shapes, and probabilities of cross-talk and after-pulsing.Comment: 17 pages, 10 figures, 3 table

    Influence of X-ray Irradiation on the Properties of the Hamamatsu Silicon Photomultiplier S10362-11-050C

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    We have investigated the effects of X-ray irradiation to doses of 0, 200 Gy, 20 kGy, 2 MGy, and 20 MGy on the Hamamatsu silicon-photomultiplier (SiPM) S10362-11-050C. The SiPMs were irradiated without applied bias voltage. From current-voltage, capacitance/conductance-voltage, -frequency, pulse-shape, and pulse-area measurements, the SiPM characteristics below and above breakdown voltage were determined. Significant changes of some SiPM parameters are observed. Up to a dose of 20 kGy the performance of the SiPMs is hardly affected by X-ray radiation damage. For doses of 2 and 20 MGy the SiPMs operate with hardly any change in gain, but with a significant increase in dark-count rate and cross-talk probability.Comment: 21 pages,30 figure

    Design and First Tests of a Radiation-Hard Pixel Sensor for the European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser

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    The high intensity and high repetition rate of the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser, presently under construction in Hamburg, requires silicon sensors which can stand X-ray doses of up to 1 GGy for 3 years of operation at high bias voltage. Within the AGIPD Collaboration the X-ray-radiation damage in MOS Capacitors and Gate-Controlled Diodes fabricated by four vendors on high-ohmic n-type silicon with two crystal orientations and dif- ferent technological parameters, has been studied for doses between 1 kGy and 1 GGy. The extracted values of oxide-charge and surface-current densi- ties have been used in TCAD simulations, and the layout and technological parameters of the AGIPD pixel sensor optimized. It is found that the op- timized layout for high X-ray doses is significantly different from the one for non-irradiated sensors. First sensors and test structures have been de-livered in early 2013. Measurement results for X-ray doses of 0 to 10 MGy and their comparison to simulations are presented. They demonstrate that the optimization has been successful and that the sensors fulfill the required specifications
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