161 research outputs found

    Transient receptor potential channels as an emerging therapeutic target for oropharyngeal dysphagia

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    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a serious health concern in older adults and patients with neurological disorders. Current oropharyngeal dysphagia management largely relies on compensatory strategies with limited efficacy. A long-term goal in swallowing/dysphagia-related research is the identification of pharmacological treatment strategies for oropharyngeal dysphagia. In recent decades, several pre-clinical and clinical studies have investigated the use of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as a therapeutic target to facilitate swallowing. Various TRP channels are present in regions involved in the swallowing process. Animal studies have shown that local activation of these channels by their pharmacological agonists initiates swallowing reflexes; the number of reflexes increases when the dose of the agonist reaches a particular level. Clinical studies, including randomized clinical trials involving patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia, have demonstrated improved swallowing efficacy, safety, and physiology when TRP agonists are mixed with the food bolus. Additionally, there is evidence of plasticity development in swallowing-related neuronal networks in the brain upon TRP channel activation in peripheral swallowing-related regions. Thus, TRP channels have emerged as a promising target for the development of pharmacological treatments for oropharyngeal dysphagia

    National trends in the outcomes of subarachnoid haemorrhage and the prognostic influence of stroke centre capability in Japan: retrospective cohort study

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    Objectives To examine the national, 6-year trends in in-hospital clinical outcomes of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) who underwent clipping or coiling and the prognostic influence of temporal trends in the Comprehensive Stroke Center (CSC) capabilities on patient outcomes in Japan.Design Retrospective study.Setting Six hundred and thirty-one primary care institutions in Japan.Participants Forty-five thousand and eleven patients with SAH who were urgently hospitalised, identified using the J-ASPECT Diagnosis Procedure Combination database.Primary and secondary outcome measures Annual number of patients with SAH who remained untreated, or who received clipping or coiling, in-hospital mortality and poor functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale: 3–6) at discharge. Each CSC was assessed using a validated scoring system (CSC score: 1–25 points).Results In the overall cohort, in-hospital mortality decreased (year for trend, OR (95% CI): 0.97 (0.96 to 0.99)), while the proportion of poor functional outcomes remained unchanged (1.00 (0.98 to 1.02)). The proportion of patients who underwent clipping gradually decreased from 46.6% to 38.5%, while that of those who received coiling and those left untreated gradually increased from 16.9% to 22.6% and 35.4% to 38%, respectively. In-hospital mortality of coiled (0.94 (0.89 to 0.98)) and untreated (0.93 (0.90 to 0.96)) patients decreased, whereas that of clipped patients remained stable. CSC score improvement was associated with increased use of coiling (per 1-point increase, 1.14 (1.08 to 1.20)) but not with short-term patient outcomes regardless of treatment modality.Conclusions The 6-year trends indicated lower in-hospital mortality for patients with SAH (attributable to better outcomes), increased use of coiling and multidisciplinary care for untreated patients. Further increasing CSC capabilities may improve overall outcomes, mainly by increasing the use of coiling. Additional studies are necessary to determine the effect of confounders such as aneurysm complexity on outcomes of clipped patients in the modern endovascular era

    Use of the index of pulmonary vascular disease for predicting long-term outcome of pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease

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    AimsLimited data exist on risk factors for the long-term outcome of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) associated with congenital heart disease (CHD-PAH). We focused on the index of pulmonary vascular disease (IPVD), an assessment system for pulmonary artery pathology specimens. The IPVD classifies pulmonary vascular lesions into four categories based on severity: (1) no intimal thickening, (2) cellular thickening of the intima, (3) fibrous thickening of the intima, and (4) destruction of the tunica media, with the overall grade expressed as an additive mean of these scores. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between IPVD and the long-term outcome of CHD-PAH.MethodsThis retrospective study examined lung pathology images of 764 patients with CHD-PAH aged <20 years whose lung specimens were submitted to the Japanese Research Institute of Pulmonary Vasculature for pulmonary pathological review between 2001 and 2020. Clinical information was collected retrospectively by each attending physician. The primary endpoint was cardiovascular death.ResultsThe 5-year, 10-year, 15-year, and 20-year cardiovascular death-free survival rates for all patients were 92.0%, 90.4%, 87.3%, and 86.1%, respectively. The group with an IPVD of ≥2.0 had significantly poorer survival than the group with an IPVD <2.0 (P = .037). The Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for the presence of congenital anomaly syndromes associated with pulmonary hypertension, and age at lung biopsy showed similar results (hazard ratio 4.46; 95% confidence interval: 1.45–13.73; P = .009).ConclusionsThe IPVD scoring system is useful for predicting the long-term outcome of CHD-PAH. For patients with an IPVD of ≥2.0, treatment strategies, including choosing palliative procedures such as pulmonary artery banding to restrict pulmonary blood flow and postponement of intracardiac repair, should be more carefully considered

    Effect of aqueous olanexidine versus alcohol-based chlorhexidine for surgical skin antisepsis on incidence of surgical site infections in gastrointestinal surgery: multicentre randomised controlled clinical trial (OEDO trial) protocol

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    Introduction Surgical site infections (SSIs) are among the most common nosocomial infections in surgery patients. Two types of preparations, povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine-alcohol, are commonly used in preoperative antiseptic procedures worldwide. However, there are inconsistencies among international guideline recommendations concerning skin antiseptics. This trial aimed to evaluate the superiority of olanexidine, which reduced SSI rates more than povidone-iodine in our previous randomised trial, over chlorhexidine-alcohol in clean-contaminated surgery.Methods and analysis This multicentre randomised controlled clinical trial will compare two antiseptics (1.5% olanexidine and 1.0% chlorhexidine-alcohol) to prevent SSI in clean-contaminated gastrointestinal surgeries with surgical wounds. On providing consent, patients aged <18 years will be included. The primary outcome will be the postoperative 30-day overall SSI rate, while the secondary outcomes will be the postoperative 30-day superficial incisional SSI rate, deep incisional SSI rate, organ/space SSI rate, positive bacterial wound culture rate, cultured bacterial strains, rates of intervention-related toxicity and allergic events (eg, erythema, pruritus, dermatitis and other symptoms of allergy around the region disinfected by the antiseptic during surgery), rate of reoperations due to SSI, medical economic effect indicators (based on health insurance claims) and hospital duration. The Mantel-Haenszel method will be used to estimate the adjusted risk ratio and its 95% CI for the primary analysis, which will compare the treatment effects.Ethics and dissemination The protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Keio University School of Medicine and subsequently by the board of each participating site. Participant recruitment began in January 2023. The final results will be published in medical journals after international peer review.Trial registration number UMIN000049712

    The whole blood transcriptional regulation landscape in 465 COVID-19 infected samples from Japan COVID-19 Task Force

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    「コロナ制圧タスクフォース」COVID-19患者由来の血液細胞における遺伝子発現の網羅的解析 --重症度に応じた遺伝子発現の変化には、ヒトゲノム配列の個人差が影響する--. 京都大学プレスリリース. 2022-08-23.Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a recently-emerged infectious disease that has caused millions of deaths, where comprehensive understanding of disease mechanisms is still unestablished. In particular, studies of gene expression dynamics and regulation landscape in COVID-19 infected individuals are limited. Here, we report on a thorough analysis of whole blood RNA-seq data from 465 genotyped samples from the Japan COVID-19 Task Force, including 359 severe and 106 non-severe COVID-19 cases. We discover 1169 putative causal expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) including 34 possible colocalizations with biobank fine-mapping results of hematopoietic traits in a Japanese population, 1549 putative causal splice QTLs (sQTLs; e.g. two independent sQTLs at TOR1AIP1), as well as biologically interpretable trans-eQTL examples (e.g., REST and STING1), all fine-mapped at single variant resolution. We perform differential gene expression analysis to elucidate 198 genes with increased expression in severe COVID-19 cases and enriched for innate immune-related functions. Finally, we evaluate the limited but non-zero effect of COVID-19 phenotype on eQTL discovery, and highlight the presence of COVID-19 severity-interaction eQTLs (ieQTLs; e.g., CLEC4C and MYBL2). Our study provides a comprehensive catalog of whole blood regulatory variants in Japanese, as well as a reference for transcriptional landscapes in response to COVID-19 infection

    DOCK2 is involved in the host genetics and biology of severe COVID-19

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    「コロナ制圧タスクフォース」COVID-19疾患感受性遺伝子DOCK2の重症化機序を解明 --アジア最大のバイオレポジトリーでCOVID-19の治療標的を発見--. 京都大学プレスリリース. 2022-08-10.Identifying the host genetic factors underlying severe COVID-19 is an emerging challenge. Here we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) involving 2, 393 cases of COVID-19 in a cohort of Japanese individuals collected during the initial waves of the pandemic, with 3, 289 unaffected controls. We identified a variant on chromosome 5 at 5q35 (rs60200309-A), close to the dedicator of cytokinesis 2 gene (DOCK2), which was associated with severe COVID-19 in patients less than 65 years of age. This risk allele was prevalent in East Asian individuals but rare in Europeans, highlighting the value of genome-wide association studies in non-European populations. RNA-sequencing analysis of 473 bulk peripheral blood samples identified decreased expression of DOCK2 associated with the risk allele in these younger patients. DOCK2 expression was suppressed in patients with severe cases of COVID-19. Single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis (n = 61 individuals) identified cell-type-specific downregulation of DOCK2 and a COVID-19-specific decreasing effect of the risk allele on DOCK2 expression in non-classical monocytes. Immunohistochemistry of lung specimens from patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia showed suppressed DOCK2 expression. Moreover, inhibition of DOCK2 function with CPYPP increased the severity of pneumonia in a Syrian hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, characterized by weight loss, lung oedema, enhanced viral loads, impaired macrophage recruitment and dysregulated type I interferon responses. We conclude that DOCK2 has an important role in the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the development of severe COVID-19, and could be further explored as a potential biomarker and/or therapeutic target

    Long-term safety and efficacy of alogliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes: a 3-year prospective, controlled, observational study (J-BRAND Registry)

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    Introduction Given an increasing use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors to treat patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the real-world setting, we conducted a prospective observational study (Japan-based Clinical Research Network for Diabetes Registry: J-BRAND Registry) to elucidate the safety and efficacy profile of long-term usage of alogliptin.Research design and methods We registered 5969 patients from April 2012 through September 2014, who started receiving alogliptin (group A) or other classes of oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs; group B), and were followed for 3 years at 239 sites nationwide. Safety was the primary outcome. Symptomatic hypoglycemia, pancreatitis, skin disorders of non-extrinsic origin, severe infections, and cancer were collected as major adverse events (AEs). Efficacy assessment was the secondary outcome and included changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin and urinary albumin.Results Of the registered, 5150 (group A: 3395 and group B: 1755) and 5096 (3358 and 1738) were included for safety and efficacy analysis, respectively. Group A patients mostly (>90%) continued to use alogliptin. In group B, biguanides were the primary agents, while DPP-4 inhibitors were added in up to ~36% of patients. The overall incidence of AEs was similar between the two groups (42.7% vs 42.2%). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed the incidence of cancer was significantly higher in group A than in group B (7.4% vs 4.8%, p=0.040), while no significant incidence difference was observed in the individual cancer. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the imbalanced patient distribution (more elderly patients in group A than in group B), but not alogliptin usage per se, contributed to cancer development. The incidence of other major AE categories was with no between-group difference. Between-group difference was not detected, either, in the incidence of microvascular and macrovascular complications. HbA1c and fasting glucose decreased significantly at the 0.5-year visit and nearly plateaued thereafter in both groups.Conclusions Alogliptin as a representative of DPP-4 inhibitors was safe and durably efficacious when used alone or with other OHAs for patients with type 2 diabetes in the real world setting

    Associations between Oral Hypofunction Tests, Age, and Sex

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    Oral function declines in older individuals due to disease and age-related changes, making them vulnerable to oral and physical frailty. Therefore, it is important to manage the decline in oral function in older outpatients. Oral hypofunction is diagnosed by seven tests related to oral function, oral hygiene, oral moisture, occlusal force, oral diadochokinesis, tongue pressure, masticatory function, and swallowing function. However, sex or age were not factored into the current reference values of these tests. We included subjects attending the dental hospital clinic for maintenance, and recorded and analyzed oral hypofunction and the factors associated with its diagnosis. Of the 134 outpatients (53 males and 81 females, mean age 75.2 ± 11.2 years), 63% were diagnosed with oral hypofunction. Oral hypofunction prevalence increased significantly with age, and significant variations were observed in all tests. Furthermore, oral hygiene and swallowing function were not associated with oral hypofunction diagnosis. All examined factors decreased with increasing age, even after adjusting sex, except for oral hygiene and moisture. Occlusal force and masticatory function were higher in men after adjusting age. This study suggested that older outpatients were likely to be diagnosed with oral hypofunction, and that the test reference value and their selection for oral hypofunction should be reconsidered
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