977 research outputs found

    Supergravity, D-brane Probes and thermal super Yang-Mills: a comparison

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    A D3-brane probe in the context of AdS/CFT correspondence at finite temperature is considered. The supergravity predictions for the physical effective couplings of the world-volume gauge theory of the probe brane are compared to those calculated in one-loop perturbation theory in the thermal gauge theory. It is argued that when the Higgs expectation value is much larger than the temperature, the supergravity result must agree with perturbative thermal Yang-Mills. This provides a perturbative test of the Maldacena conjecture. Predictions for the running electric and magnetic effective couplings, beyond perturbation theory are also obtained. Phenomenological applications for universe-branes are discussed. In particular mechanisms are suggested for reducing the induced cosmological constant and naturally obtaining a varying speed of light and a consequent inflation on the universe brane.Comment: LaTeX, 23 pages, 4 eps figures; v2: Comparison with Tseytlin-Yankielowicz ammended. Extra discussion on reduced supersymmetry on branes added; v3: A few minor changes to improve presentation. Version published in JHEP10(1999)1

    Brane-bulk energy exchange and cosmological acceleration

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    The consequences for the brane cosmological evolution of energy exchange between the brane and the bulk are analyzed. A rich variety of brane cosmologies is obtained, depending on the precise mechanism of energy transfer, the equation of state of brane-matter and the spatial topology. An accelerating era is generically a feature of the solutions. (Prepared for 36th International Symposium Ahrenshoop on the Theory of Elementary Particles: Recent Developments in String M Theory and Field Theory, Wernsdorf, Germany, 26-30 Aug 2003.)Comment: 14 pages, 2 figures, Late

    Duality Symmetries and Topology Change in String Theory

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    Duality symmetries for strings moving in non-trivial spacetime backgrounds are analysed. It is shown that for backgrounds generated from WZW and coset CFT models such duality symmetries are exact to all orders in string perturbation theory. Their implications for string dynamics in non-trivial/singular spacetimes are discussed. (Talk given at the EPS 93 Conference, held at Marseille, July 22-27. To appear in the Proceedings.)Comment: lateX file, 6pp. CERN-TH.7003/9

    4D gravity on a brane from bulk higher-curvature terms

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    We study a gravity model where a tensionful codimension-one three-brane is embedded on a bulk with infinite transverse length. We find that 4D gravity is induced on the brane already at the classical level if we include higher-curvature (Gauss-Bonnet) terms in the bulk. Consistency conditions appear to require a negative brane tension as well as a negative coupling for the higher-curvature terms.Comment: 10 pages, no figures; a minor change in wording (to appear in MPLA

    Perturbative and Non-Perturbative Partial Supersymmetry Breaking; N=4 -> N=2 -> N=1

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    We show the existence of a supersymmetry breaking mechanism in string theory, where N=4 supersymmetry is broken spontaneously to N=2 and N=1 with moduli dependent gravitino masses. The spectrum of the spontaneously broken theory with lower supersymmetry is in one-to-one correspondence with the spectrum of the heterotic N=4 string. The mass splitting of the N=4 spectrum depends on the compactification moduli as well as the three R-symmetry charges. We also show that, in string theory, chiral theories can be obtained after spontaneous breaking of extended supersymmetry. This was impossible at the level of field theory. In the large moduli limit a restoration of the N=4 supersymmetry is obtained. As expected the graviphotons and some of the gauge bosons become massive in N=1 vacua. At some special points of the moduli space some of the N=4 states with non-zero winding numbers and with spin 0 and {1/2} become massless chiral superfields of the unbroken N=1 supersymmetry. Such vaccua have a dual type II description, in which there are magnetically charged states with spin 0 and {1/2} that become massless. The heterotic-type II duality suggests some novel non-perturbative transitions on the type II side. Such transitions do not seem to have a geometric interpretation, since they relate type II vaccua with symmetric worlsheet structure to assymetric ones. The heteroric interpretation of such a transition is an ordinary Higgsing of an SU(2) factor. In the case of N=4 --> N=2, the perturbative N=2 prepotential is determined by the perturbative N=4 BPS states. This observation let us to suggest a method which determines the exact non-perturbative prepotential of the effective N=2 supergravity using the shifted spectrum of the non-perturbative BPS states of the underlying N=4 theory.Comment: 36 pages, Latex. An important part is added. We point out that there are string theory groundstates with spontaneously broken extended supersymmetry and chiral spectru

    Mirage Cosmology

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    A brane universe moving in a curved higher dimensional bulk space is considered. The motion induces a cosmological evolution on the universe brane that is indistiguishable from a similar one induced by matter density on the brane. The phenomenological implications of such an idea are discussed. Various mirage energy densities are found, corresponding to dilute matter driving the cosmological expansion, many having superluminal properties ∣w∣>1|w|>1 or violating the positive energy condition. It is shown that energy density due to the world-volume fields is nicely incorporated into the picture. It is also pointed out that the initial singularity problem is naturally resolved in this context.Comment: JHEP LateX, 20 pages, no figures;v2 references added and a few minor changes; (v3) Corrected an inconsequential error in eq. 6.2, 6.3. We thank D. Kutasov for bringing this to our attention (v4) Corrected inconsequential errors in (4.4)-(4.7) and (5.11). We thank A. Psinas for bringing them to our attentio

    Gravitational Phenomena from Superstrings in Curved Spacetime

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    The four-dimensional superstring solutions define at low energy effective supergravity theories. A class of them extends successfully the validity of the standard model up to the string scale (O(1017) TeV{\cal O}(10^{17})~TeV). We stress the importance of string corrections which are relevant for low energy (O(1) TeV{\cal O}(1)~TeV) predictions of gauge and Yukawa couplings as well as the spectrum of the supersymmetric particles. A class of exact string solutions are also presented, providing non trivial space-time backgrounds, from which we can draw some lessons concerning the regions of space-time where the notion of the effective field theory prescription make sense. We show that the string gravitational phenomena may induce during the cosmological evolution, transitions from one effective field theory prescription to a different one where the geometrical and topological data, as well as the relevant observable states are drastically different. Talk presented by C. Kounnas in the XXIX Moriond Meeting, M\'eribel, France.Comment: LateX, 11pp., CERN-TH.7332/9

    U-duality and D-brane Combinatorics

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    We investigate D-brane instanton contributions to R^4 couplings in any toroidal compactification of type II theories. Starting from the 11D supergravity one-loop four-graviton amplitude computed by Green, Gutperle and Vanhove, we derive the non-perturbative O(e^{-1/\lambda}) corrections to R^4 couplings by a sequence of T-dualities, and interpret them as precise configurations of bound states of D-branes wrapping cycles of the compactification torus. Dp-branes explicitely appear as fluxes on D(p+2)-branes, and as gauge instantons on D(p+4)-branes. Specific rules for weighting these contributions are obtained, which should carry over to more general situations. Furthermore, it is shown that U-duality in D<=6 relates these D-brane configurations to O(e^{-1/\lambda^2}) instantons for which a geometric interpretation is still lacking.Comment: 17 pages, LaTeX2e, intro. shortened and minor typos corrected, final versio

    Dynamical Topology Change, Compactification and Waves in a Stringy Early Universe

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    Exact string solutions are presented, where moduli fields are varying with time. They provide examples where a dynamical change of the topology of space is occurring. Some other solutions give cosmological examples where some dimensions are compactified dynamically or simulate pre-big bang type scenarios. Some lessons are drawn concerning the region of validity of effective theories and how they can be glued together, using stringy information in the region where the geometry and topology are not well defined from the low energy point of view. Other time dependent solutions are presented where a hierarchy of scales is absent. Such solutions have dynamics which is qualitatively different and resemble plane gravitational waves. Talk presented by E. Kiritsis in the 2\`eme Journ\'ee Cosmologie, Observatoire de Paris, 2-4 June 1994.Comment: LaTeX, 28pp. CERN-TH.7328/9