7 research outputs found

    Towards Structured Sentencing in Kenya: A Case for Reform

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    This article engages in an empirical review of sentencing in Kenya. It argues that huge disparities exist in sentencing thus undermining public confidence and the realization of the goals of the system. The development of comprehensive sentencing guidelines is recommended as a panacea to the unwarranted discrepancies in sentencing. It is argued that sentencing guidelines are not intended to impede judicial discretion but rather to provide a framework within which the discretion would be exercised

    The Breadth, but Not the Magnitude, of Circulating Memory B Cell Responses to P. falciparum Increases with Age/Exposure in an Area of Low Transmission

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    BACKGROUND: Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum remains a major cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa. Immunity against symptoms of malaria requires repeated exposure, suggesting either that the parasite is poorly immunogenic or that the development of effective immune responses to malaria may be impaired. METHODS: We carried out two age-stratified cross-sectional surveys of anti-malarial humoral immune responses in a Gambian village where P. falciparum malaria transmission is low and sporadic. Circulating antibodies and memory B cells (MBC) to four malarial antigens were measured using ELISA and cultured B cell ELISpot. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of individuals with malaria-specific MBC and antibodies, and the average number of antigens recognised by each individual, increased with age but the magnitude of these responses did not. Malaria-specific antibody levels did not correlate with either the prevalence or median number of MBC, indicating that these two assays are measuring different aspects of the humoral immune response. Among those with immunological evidence of malaria exposure (defined as a positive response to at least one malarial antigen either by ELISA or ELISPOT), the median number of malaria-specific MBC was similar to median numbers of diphtheria-specific MBC, suggesting that the circulating memory cell pool for malaria antigens is of similar size to that for other antigens

    Large expert-curated database for benchmarking document similarity detection in biomedical literature search

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    Document recommendation systems for locating relevant literature have mostly relied on methods developed a decade ago. This is largely due to the lack of a large offline gold-standard benchmark of relevant documents that cover a variety of research fields such that newly developed literature search techniques can be compared, improved and translated into practice. To overcome this bottleneck, we have established the RElevant LIterature SearcH consortium consisting of more than 1500 scientists from 84 countries, who have collectively annotated the relevance of over 180 000 PubMed-listed articles with regard to their respective seed (input) article/s. The majority of annotations were contributed by highly experienced, original authors of the seed articles. The collected data cover 76% of all unique PubMed Medical Subject Headings descriptors. No systematic biases were observed across different experience levels, research fields or time spent on annotations. More importantly, annotations of the same document pairs contributed by different scientists were highly concordant. We further show that the three representative baseline methods used to generate recommended articles for evaluation (Okapi Best Matching 25, Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency and PubMed Related Articles) had similar overall performances. Additionally, we found that these methods each tend to produce distinct collections of recommended articles, suggesting that a hybrid method may be required to completely capture all relevant articles. The established database server located at https://relishdb.ict.griffith.edu.au is freely available for the downloading of annotation data and the blind testing of new methods. We expect that this benchmark will be useful for stimulating the development of new powerful techniques for title and title/abstract-based search engines for relevant articles in biomedical research.Peer reviewe

    Restorative Justice in Traditional Pre-Colonial \u27Criminal Justice Systems\u27 in Kenya

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    Traditional African communities are often said to have embraced restorative values in resolving conflicts and responding to wrongdoing. Through empirical research and analysis of secondary data on the pre-colonial traditional Kamba, Kikuyu and Meru communities in Kenya, this article illustrates how penal practices in these communities embraced restorative justice as understood today. This genealogy of restorative justice in these communities demonstrates the potential of restorative justice as an intervention in crime and its role in meeting overall community goals. By doing so, the genealogy challenges the objectification of retributive justice in modern criminal justice systems, which renders retributive practices as an obvious or self-evident response to crime. The in-depth analysis of restorative justice in the three traditional communities further demonstrates how the penal practices resonated with the underlying cultural values hence effectively responding to crime before the inception of the formal criminal justice system in Kenya

    A Genealogical Analysis of the Criminal Justice System in Kenya: Rebirth of Restorative Justice for Juveniles?

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    This thesis explores restorative justice practices as a modality of intervention in juvenile crime in Kenya. To analyse current restorative justice practices, the thesis adopts the Foucauldian concept of genealogy and examines the processes through which contemporary penal practices have become acceptable. The thesis links reforms in the juvenile justice system in Kenya to the process of legal globalization and highlights the role of the ‘law and development’ discourse in this process. Identifying pitfalls intrinsic to the Westernization of Kenyan law, the thesis engages in a postcolonial critique of law and development. Inspired by Foucault’s analysis of power/knowledge, which postcolonial theory heavily relies on, the thesis examines the conditions that make the Westernization of Kenyan law possible. In particular, the thesis analyzes the conditions that have made certain penal practices acceptable. Using data collected through original empirical research and existing literature on the Kenyan justice system, the thesis examines these penal practices. The research reveals that there have been attempts to incorporate restorative justice practices in the formal juvenile justice system. However, the system underutilizes these practices in favour of conventional court-based penal practices. On the other hand, restorative justice values are embraced in informal forums. Arguing that restorative justice values are compatible with the cultural ethos of communities in Kenya, this thesis examines why restorative justice practices in the formal juvenile justice system remain underutilized. The thesis identifies imprisonment as the predominant modality of punishment in Kenya and analyzes how restorative justice fits in within this context. Analyzing the current underutilization of restorative justice, the thesis highlights the failure to tailor legal structures to fit the contextual realities as a major drawback to the Westernization of Kenyan law. Inspired by postcolonial theory, the thesis underscores the need for local solutions to structural challenges besetting the legal system. It further emphasizes the need for a careful analysis of the compatibility of global penal trends with the contextual realities of a country still beset by the aftermath of colonialism

    A genealogical analysis of the criminal justice system in Kenya : rebirth of restorative justice for juveniles?

    No full text
    This thesis explores restorative justice practices as a modality of intervention in juvenile crime in Kenya. To analyse current restorative justice practices, the thesis adopts the Foucauldian concept of genealogy and examines the processes through which contemporary penal practices have become acceptable. The thesis links reforms in the juvenile justice system in Kenya to the process of legal globalization and highlights the role of the ‘law and development’ discourse in this process. Identifying pitfalls intrinsic to the Westernization of Kenyan law, the thesis engages in a postcolonial critique of law and development. Inspired by Foucault’s analysis of power/knowledge, which postcolonial theory heavily relies on, the thesis examines the conditions that make the Westernization of Kenyan law possible. In particular, the thesis analyzes the conditions that have made certain penal practices acceptable. Using data collected through original empirical research and existing literature on the Kenyan justice system, the thesis examines these penal practices. The research reveals that there have been attempts to incorporate restorative justice practices in the formal juvenile justice system. However, the system underutilizes these practices in favour of conventional court-based penal practices. On the other hand, restorative justice values are embraced in informal forums. Arguing that restorative justice values are compatible with the cultural ethos of communities in Kenya, this thesis examines why restorative justice practices in the formal juvenile justice system remain underutilized. The thesis identifies imprisonment as the predominant modality of punishment in Kenya and analyzes how restorative justice fits in within this context. Analyzing the current underutilization of restorative justice, the thesis highlights the failure to tailor legal structures to fit the contextual realities as a major drawback to the Westernization of Kenyan law. Inspired by postcolonial theory, the thesis underscores the need for local solutions to structural challenges besetting the legal system. It further emphasizes the need for a careful analysis of the compatibility of global penal trends with the contextual realities of a country still beset by the aftermath of colonialism.EThOS - Electronic Theses Online ServiceGBUnited Kingdo

    Large expert-curated database for benchmarking document similarity detection in biomedical literature search

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