53 research outputs found

    Nanophotonic coherent light-matter interfaces based on rare-earth-doped crystals

    Get PDF
    Quantum light-matter interfaces (QLMIs) connecting stationary qubits to photons will enable optical networks for quantum communications, precise global time keeping, photon switching, and studies of fundamental physics. Rare-earth-ion (REI) doped crystals are state-of-the-art materials for optical quantum memories and quantum transducers between optical photons, microwave photons and spin waves. Here we demonstrate coupling of an ensemble of neodymium REIs to photonic nano-cavities fabricated in the yttrium orthosilicate host crystal. Cavity quantum electrodynamics effects including Purcell enhancement (F=42) and dipole-induced transparency are observed on the highly coherent 4I9/2-4F3/2 optical transition. Fluctuations in the cavity transmission due to statistical fine structure of the atomic density are measured, indicating operation at the quantum level. Coherent optical control of cavity-coupled REIs is performed via photon echoes. Long optical coherence times (T2~100 microseconds) and small inhomogeneous broadening are measured for the cavity-coupled REIs, thus demonstrating their potential for on-chip scalable QLMIs

    Quantum Nanophotonics with Ytterbium in Yttrium Orthovanadate

    Get PDF
    Quantum light-matter interfaces that can reversibly map quantum information between photons and atoms are essential for building future quantum networks. Crystals doped with rare-earth ions (REIs) are an attractive solid-state platform for such light-matter interfaces due to their exceptional optical and spin coherence properties at cryogenic temperatures. Building scalable REI-based technology has proven to be challenging due to the inherently weak coupling of REIs with light. This thesis explores the integration of REIs with nanophotonic resonators to overcome this weak light-matter interaction and enable efficient, scalable quantum light-matter interfaces. Specifically, this work focuses on the development of quantum nanophotonics with ytterbium in yttrium orthovanadate. This thesis begins with an introduction to a nanophotonic platform based on photonic crystal cavities fabricated directly in rare-earth host materials and highlights the initial successes of this platform with neodymium-doped materials. This motivates an examination of the optical and spin coherence properties of 171Yb:YVO4, a REI material that was previously unexplored for quantum technology applications. This material is found to have strong optical transitions compared to other REI-doped materials, a simple energy level structure, and long optical and spin coherence lifetimes. The focus then turns to the detection and coherent manipulation of single ytterbium ions coupled to nanophotonic cavities. The Purcell-enhancement in these cavities enables efficient optical detection and spin initialization of individual ytterbium ions. We identify ions corresponding to different isotopes of ytterbium and show that the coupling of electron and nuclear spin in ytterbium-171 at zero-field gives rise to strong electron-spin-like transitions that are first-order insensitive to magnetic field fluctuations. This allows for coherent microwave control and the observation of long spin coherence lifetimes at temperatures up to 1 K. We then make use of the optical selection rules and energy structure of 171Yb:YVO4 to demonstrate high-fidelity single-shot optical readout of the spin state. These results establish nanophotonic devices in 171Yb:YVO4 as a promising platform for solid-state quantum light-matter interfaces.</p

    Towards Detection of Single Rare-Earth-Ions in a Nanophotonic Resonator

    Get PDF
    We report a scheme for detecting single rare-earth-ions coupled to an Yttrium Orthosilicate (YSO) nanophotonic resonator, which could enable precise optical addressing of individual ions as single qubits for quantum information applications

    Interfacing broadband photonic qubits to on-chip cavity-protected rare-earth ensembles

    Get PDF
    Ensembles of solid-state optical emitters enable broadband quantum storage and transduction of photonic qubits, with applications in high-rate quantum networks for secure communications and interconnecting future quantum computers. To transfer quantum states using ensembles, rephasing techniques are used to mitigate fast decoherence resulting from inhomogeneous broadening, but these techniques generally limit the bandwidth, efficiency and active times of the quantum interface. Here, we use a dense ensemble of neodymium rare-earth ions strongly coupled to a nanophotonic resonator to demonstrate a significant cavity protection effect at the single-photon level—a technique to suppress ensemble decoherence due to inhomogeneous broadening. The protected Rabi oscillations between the cavity field and the atomic super-radiant state enable ultra-fast transfer of photonic frequency qubits to the ions (∼50 GHz bandwidth) followed by retrieval with 98.7% fidelity. With the prospect of coupling to other long-lived rare-earth spin states, this technique opens the possibilities for broadband, always-ready quantum memories and fast optical-to-microwave transducers

    Control and single-shot readout of an ion embedded in a nanophotonic cavity

    Get PDF
    Distributing entanglement over long distances using optical networks is an intriguing macroscopic quantum phenomenon with applications in quantum systems for advanced computing and secure communication. Building quantum networks requires scalable quantum light–matter interfaces based on atoms, ions or other optically addressable qubits. Solid-state emitters5, such as quantum dots and defects in diamond or silicon carbide , have emerged as promising candidates for such interfaces. So far, it has not been possible to scale up these systems, motivating the development of alternative platforms. A central challenge is identifying emitters that exhibit coherent optical and spin transitions while coupled to photonic cavities that enhance the light–matter interaction and channel emission into optical fibres. Rare-earth ions in crystals are known to have highly coherent 4f–4f optical and spin transitions suited to quantum storage and transduction, but only recently have single rare-earth ions been isolated and coupled to nanocavities. The crucial next steps towards using single rare-earth ions for quantum networks are realizing long spin coherence and single-shot readout in photonic resonators. Here we demonstrate spin initialization, coherent optical and spin manipulation, and high-fidelity single-shot optical readout of the hyperfine spin state of single ¹⁷¹Yb³⁺ ions coupled to a nanophotonic cavity fabricated in an yttrium orthovanadate host crystal. These ions have optical and spin transitions that are first-order insensitive to magnetic field fluctuations, enabling optical linewidths of less than one megahertz and spin coherence times exceeding thirty milliseconds for cavity-coupled ions, even at temperatures greater than one kelvin. The cavity-enhanced optical emission rate facilitates efficient spin initialization and single-shot readout with conditional fidelity greater than 95 per cent. These results showcase a solid-state platform based on single coherent rare-earth ions for the future quantum internet

    Characterization of the Superhyperfine Interaction in ^(171)Yb:YVO_4

    Get PDF
    We computationally characterize the superhyperfine energy structure of ^(171)Yb:YVO_4 and compare predicted holeburning spectra and coherence times with experimental data. Our simulation can help optimize coherence times for ensemble-based quantum memories and single-ion qubits

    High quality factor nanophotonic resonators in bulk rare-earth doped crystals

    Get PDF
    Numerous bulk crystalline materials exhibit attractive nonlinear and luminescent properties for classical and quantum optical applications. A chip-scale platform for high quality factor optical nanocavities in these materials will enable new optoelectronic devices and quantum light-matter interfaces. In this article, photonic crystal nanobeam resonators fabricated using focused ion beam milling in bulk insulators, such as rare-earth doped yttrium orthosilicate and yttrium vanadate, are demonstrated. Operation in the visible, near infrared, and telecom wavelengths with quality factors up to 27,000 and optical mode volumes close to one cubic wavelength is measured. These devices enable new nanolasers, on-chip quantum optical memories, single photon sources, and non-linear devices at low photon numbers based on rare-earth ions. The techniques are also applicable to other luminescent centers and crystal

    Coupling of erbium dopants to yttrium orthosilicate photonic crystal cavities for on-chip optical quantum memories

    Get PDF
    Erbium dopants in crystals exhibit highly coherent optical transitions well suited for solid-state optical quantum memories operating in the telecom band. Here, we demonstrate coupling of erbium dopant ions in yttrium orthosilicate to a photonic crystal cavity fabricated directly in the host crystal using focused ion beam milling. The coupling leads to reduction of the photoluminescence lifetime and enhancement of the optical depth in microns-long devices, which will enable on-chip quantum memories

    On-chip quantum storage in a rare-earth-doped photonic nanocavity

    Get PDF
    Rare-earth-ion doped crystals are state-of-the-art materials for optical quantum memories and quantum transducers between optical and microwave photons. Here we describe our progress towards a nanophotonic quantum memory based on a rare-earth (Neodymium) doped yttrium orthosilicate (YSO) photonic crystal resonator. The Purcell-enhanced coupling of the 883 nm transitions of Neodymium (Nd^(3+)) ions to the nano-resonator results in increased optical depth, which could in principle facilitate highly efficient photon storage via cavity impedance matching. The atomic frequency comb (AFC) memory protocol can be implemented in the Nd:YSO nano-resonator by efficient optical pumping into the long-lived Zeeman state. Coherent optical signals can be stored and retrieved from the AFC memory. We currently measure a storage efficiency on par with a bulk crystal Nd:YSO memory that is millimeters long. Our results will enable multiplexed on-chip quantum storage and thus quantum repeater devices using rare-earth-ions
    corecore