8,364 research outputs found

    t-tbar Pair production cross section measurement at the LHC

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    Measurement of ttˉt\bar{t} pair production cross sections with an integrated luminosity of around 1 fb1^{-1} at s\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV obtained with the ATLAS and CMS detectors are reported. The inclusive cross sections in dilepton (ee, eμe\mu, μμ\mu\mu and μτ\mu\tau), lepton+jets (e, μ\mu) and all hadronic decay modes are measured. In addition to inclusive cross section measurement, the study of jet multiplicity with additional jets are also presented, which is important to constrain the initial state radiation. Measurement of the charge asymmetry at the LHC is also presented. All measurements are compatible with Standard Model predictions.Comment: Presented at the 2011 Hadron Collider Physics symposium (HCP-2011), Paris, France, November 14-18 2011, 5 pages, 7 figure

    Disruption of Molecular Clouds by Expansion of Dusty H II Regions

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    Dynamical expansion of H II regions around star clusters plays a key role in dispersing the surrounding dense gas and therefore in limiting the efficiency of star formation in molecular clouds. We use a semi-analytic method and numerical simulations to explore expansion of spherical dusty H II regions and surrounding neutral shells and the resulting cloud disruption. Our model for shell expansion adopts the static solutions of Draine (2011) for dusty H II regions and considers the contact outward forces on the shell due to radiation and thermal pressures as well as the inward gravity from the central star and the shell itself. We show that the internal structure we adopt and the shell evolution from the semi-analytic approach are in good agreement with the results of numerical simulations. Strong radiation pressure in the interior controls the shell expansion indirectly by enhancing the density and pressure at the ionization front. We calculate the minimum star formation efficiency ϵmin\epsilon_{min} required for cloud disruption as a function of the cloud's total mass and mean surface density. Within the adopted spherical geometry, we find that typical giant molecular clouds in normal disk galaxies have ϵmin10\epsilon_{min} \lesssim 10%, with comparable gas and radiation pressure effects on shell expansion. Massive cluster-forming clumps require a significantly higher efficiency of ϵmin50\epsilon_{min} \gtrsim 50% for disruption, produced mainly by radiation-driven expansion. The disruption time is typically of the order of a free-fall timescale, suggesting that the cloud disruption occurs rapidly once a sufficiently luminous H II region is formed. We also discuss limitations of the spherical idealization.Comment: 23 pages, 14 figures; Accepted for publication in Ap