231 research outputs found

    Taxonomy Techniques for Holocaust-Related Image Digitization and Text

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    MEASURING GLOBAL STOCK MARKET EFFICIENCY

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    Department of Finance/AccountingThis paper studies global stock market efficiency on the basis of Bernard and Thomas’s (1990) “delayed response” hypothesis, and Lee and Rui’s (2011) works on investor perceptions of earnings processes and post-announcement drift. With an application of the proxy for investor perception on the temporary and permanent earnings driven from Nelson’s decomposition techniques, the stock market efficiencies of 11 countries were estimated. By assuming that investors will put weights on each permanent and temporary earnings process as they expect future abnormal returns, this study uses the weight on the temporary earnings process as an estimation proxy for stock market efficiency. From La porta et al (2000), it is possible to think that market efficiency is closely related to investor protection and effectiveness of law enforcement. On the conjecture that good investor protection, effectiveness of law enforcement, and well established accounting standards lead markets to become more efficient, the market efficiency of 11 countries are estimated with a newly developed measure, and then compare the result to indices of La porta et al (2000) that show the degree of investor protection, the effectiveness of law enforcement, and accounting standards. The average market efficiency of Scandinavian civil law countries (Finland, Sweden) is 0.82, the highest score among the four legal origins examined, as the countries are well equipped with efficient legal systems to protect investors, and with the best accounting standards in La porta et al (2000). French (Italy, Spain) and German (Austria, Germany, Greece) civil law countries show little difference in average market efficiencies as they have a similar level of investor protection and legal enforcement efficiency in study of La porta et al (2000). All in all, estimation result of market efficiency is consistent to study of La porta et al (2000).ope

    The Korea Fair Trade Commission\u27s Decision on Microsoft\u27s Tying Practice: The Second-Best Remedy for Harmed Competitors

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    In the spring of 2006, the Korea Fair Trade Commission (“KFTC”) imposed a fine of approximately thirty-one million dollars and a cease-and-desist order against Microsoft Corporation (“Microsoft”) for bundling its Windows Media Service (“WMS”), Windows Media Player (“WMP”), and Windows Messenger (“WM”) into its personal computer operating system “Windows.” Specifically, the KFTC ordered Microsoft to completely separate WMS from Windows and provide two different versions of Windows: one bundled with WMP and WM and the other without these two programs. It is also noteworthy that the KFTC required Microsoft to include the “Media/Messenger Centre” in the bundled version to help users download competing media players and instant messengers. Yet, the KFTC’s requirement still seems imperfect because most end-users become wedded to Microsoft’s application programs to which they are exposed first. Instead, the KFTC could have imposed a “must-carry” obligation which requires installation of other competing media players and messaging programs as the default in Windows. Among various remedial options available, the must-carry requirement against Microsoft could be the most effective way to give Windows users fully equal access to competing products. But many practical difficulties, such as increased costs due to potential legal and economic problems exist in providing such equal accessibility through the must-carry option. Thus, the KFTC’s “Media/Messenger Center” requirement, which is expected to create similar (but still not equal) accessibility as the must-carry obligation, was an appropriate alternative as the next best option for the KFTC

    Effects of Anxiety and Depression on Functional Counterfactual Thinking

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    Anxiety and depression are mental disorders that are common in the United States that share one common symptom: rumination. While one may traditionally associate rumination with negative affect, some forms of rumination can have positive benefits. For example, counterfactual thinking is one type of rumination that can strengthen behavioral intentions and improve performance on subsequent tasks. In particular, functional counterfactuals enhance self-regulatory success by eliciting thoughts about better alternatives to past events and transforming these thoughts into plans for future action (Epstude & Roese, 2008). However, there is insufficient research on how anxiety and depression affects functional counterfactual thinking. The current research examines the effect of anxiety and depression on functional counterfactual thinking by examining how different judgment tasks influence participants’ activation of behavioral intentions. Participants completed both anxiety and depression measures to determine whether these conditions hinder facilitation of intentions following counterfactual thinking. We found a pattern of facilitation by counterfactual relative to control judgments that varied as a function of the type of action. When the action focused on a behavior, counterfactuals produced faster behavioral intention judgments relative to control. However, when the action was focused on a trait, counterfactuals did not facilitate behavioral intentions relative to control. Neither depression nor anxiety scores influenced this facilitation pattern

    Effects of Anxiety and Depression on Functional Counterfactual Thinking

    Get PDF
    Anxiety and depression are mental disorders that are common in the United States that share one common symptom: rumination. While one may traditionally associate rumination with negative affect, some forms of rumination can have positive benefits. For example, counterfactual thinking is one type of rumination that can strengthen behavioral intentions and improve performance on subsequent tasks. In particular, functional counterfactuals enhance self-regulatory success by eliciting thoughts about better alternatives to past events and transforming these thoughts into plans for future action (Epstude & Roese, 2008). However, there is insufficient research on how anxiety and depression affects functional counterfactual thinking. The current research examines the effect of anxiety and depression on functional counterfactual thinking by examining how different judgment tasks influence participants’ activation of behavioral intentions. Participants completed both anxiety and depression measures to determine whether these conditions hinder facilitation of intentions following counterfactual thinking. We found a pattern of facilitation by counterfactual relative to control judgments that varied as a function of the type of action. When the action focused on a behavior, counterfactuals produced faster behavioral intention judgments relative to control. However, when the action was focused on a trait, counterfactuals did not facilitate behavioral intentions relative to control. Neither depression nor anxiety scores influenced this facilitation pattern

    Future directions of online learning environment design at medical schools: a transition towards a post-pandemic context

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    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had an extremely large impact on methods of teaching and learning, and the need for online learning has grown enormously during the COVID-19 pandemic. Because most professors and students adjusted their mode of teaching and learning to this new context, online learning seemed to be going well. The problem is that distance learning was abruptly adopted as an alternative method of classroom instruction. To increase the effectiveness of online learning, more consideration is needed to explore future directions of creating learning environments. Therefore, this study suggests seven design guidelines for designing learning environments at medical schools based on a theoretical background and experiences from the pandemic. Constructivism and situated learning theory are introduced as the theoretical background for learning environment design, and the basic principles of learning environment design with the paradigm shift to learner-centered classrooms and experiences using EdTech, including HyFlex learning, flipped learning, learning management systems, and interactive learning tools, were used to develop the design guidelines. Each design guideline is strategically matched with the basic principles: learner-centeredness, real-world tasks and contexts, problem-solving, new roles of professors as facilitators or tutors, collaboration, and new perspectives of evaluation and assessment

    Students’ perceptions of the learning environment at a medical school in Korea: comparisons of the most recent 4 years’ results using the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM)

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    Background The learning environment is an essential factor influencing students’ educational processes and personal quality of life. The purpose of this study was to examine medical students’ perceptions of the learning environment at a medical school over the most recent 4 years and explore possibilities for learning environment reform and revision based on the results. Methods Participating students were asked about their perceptions of the learning environment using the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) questionnaire, which was distributed to first-year, third-year, and fourth-year students, representing each learning period. In total, 349 students participated in this study. Analysis of variance was conducted to determine differences in DREEM scores among years and learning periods. Results There were no statistically significant differences in DREEM scores by year and learning period, except for students’ perceptions of teachers and students’ perceptions of atmosphere. However, in an analysis of differences in DREEM scores in the class of 2018 cohort by learning period, four domains of the DREEM (except for students’ academic self-perceptions) and the total DREEM score were found to be significantly different. Conclusions Students’ perceptions of the learning environment at Kosin University College of Medicine were relatively high. The total score increased from 2019 to 2022, except for 2021. Another significant result was that basic science students had the highest perceptions, whereas students in basic clinical science had the lowest perceptions. To improve the learning environment for medical students, continuing support for students’ emotional stability, learning motivation, physical environment, social relationships, and counseling is essential
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