416 research outputs found

    Removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by a zeolite–nanoscale zero-valent iron composite

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    The effectiveness of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) to remove heavy metals from water is reduced by its low durability, poor mechanical strength, and tendency to form aggregates. A composite of zeolite and nanoscale zero-valent iron (Z–nZVI) overcomes these problems and shows good potential to remove Pb from water. FTIR spectra support nZVI loading onto the zeolite and reduced Fe0 oxidation in the Z–nZVI composite. Scanning electron micrographs show aggregation was eliminated and transmission electron micrographs show well-dispersed nZVI in chain-like structures within the zeolite matrix. The mean surface area of the composite was 80.37 m2/g, much greater than zeolite (1.03 m2/g) or nZVI (12.25 m2/g) alone, as determined by BET-N2 measurement. More than 96% of the Pb(II) was removed from 100 mL of solution containing 100 mg Pb(II)/L within 140 min of mixing with 0.1 g Z–nZVI. Tests with solution containing 1000 mg Pb(II)/L suggested that the capacity of the Z–nZVI is about 806 mg Pb(II)/g. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed the presence of Fe in the composite; X-ray diffraction confirmed formation and immobilization of Fe0 and subsequent sorption and reduction of some of the Pb(II) to Pb0. The low quantity of Pb(II) recovered in water-soluble and Ca(NO3)2-extractable fractions indicate low bioavailability of the Pb(II) removed by the composite. Results support the potential use of the Z–nZVI composite in permeable reactive barriers

    Removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by a zeolite–nanoscale zero-valent iron composite

    Get PDF
    The effectiveness of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) to remove heavy metals from water is reduced by its low durability, poor mechanical strength, and tendency to form aggregates. A composite of zeolite and nanoscale zero-valent iron (Z–nZVI) overcomes these problems and shows good potential to remove Pb from water. FTIR spectra support nZVI loading onto the zeolite and reduced Fe0 oxidation in the Z–nZVI composite. Scanning electron micrographs show aggregation was eliminated and transmission electron micrographs show well-dispersed nZVI in chain-like structures within the zeolite matrix. The mean surface area of the composite was 80.37 m2/g, much greater than zeolite (1.03 m2/g) or nZVI (12.25 m2/g) alone, as determined by BET-N2 measurement. More than 96% of the Pb(II) was removed from 100 mL of solution containing 100 mg Pb(II)/L within 140 min of mixing with 0.1 g Z–nZVI. Tests with solution containing 1000 mg Pb(II)/L suggested that the capacity of the Z–nZVI is about 806 mg Pb(II)/g. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed the presence of Fe in the composite; X-ray diffraction confirmed formation and immobilization of Fe0 and subsequent sorption and reduction of some of the Pb(II) to Pb0. The low quantity of Pb(II) recovered in water-soluble and Ca(NO3)2-extractable fractions indicate low bioavailability of the Pb(II) removed by the composite. Results support the potential use of the Z–nZVI composite in permeable reactive barriers

    Post-intervention Status in Patients With Refractory Myasthenia Gravis Treated With Eculizumab During REGAIN and Its Open-Label Extension

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    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether eculizumab helps patients with anti-acetylcholine receptor-positive (AChR+) refractory generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG) achieve the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) post-intervention status of minimal manifestations (MM), we assessed patients' status throughout REGAIN (Safety and Efficacy of Eculizumab in AChR+ Refractory Generalized Myasthenia Gravis) and its open-label extension. METHODS: Patients who completed the REGAIN randomized controlled trial and continued into the open-label extension were included in this tertiary endpoint analysis. Patients were assessed for the MGFA post-intervention status of improved, unchanged, worse, MM, and pharmacologic remission at defined time points during REGAIN and through week 130 of the open-label study. RESULTS: A total of 117 patients completed REGAIN and continued into the open-label study (eculizumab/eculizumab: 56; placebo/eculizumab: 61). At week 26 of REGAIN, more eculizumab-treated patients than placebo-treated patients achieved a status of improved (60.7% vs 41.7%) or MM (25.0% vs 13.3%; common OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1-4.5). After 130 weeks of eculizumab treatment, 88.0% of patients achieved improved status and 57.3% of patients achieved MM status. The safety profile of eculizumab was consistent with its known profile and no new safety signals were detected. CONCLUSION: Eculizumab led to rapid and sustained achievement of MM in patients with AChR+ refractory gMG. These findings support the use of eculizumab in this previously difficult-to-treat patient population. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: REGAIN, NCT01997229; REGAIN open-label extension, NCT02301624. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that, after 26 weeks of eculizumab treatment, 25.0% of adults with AChR+ refractory gMG achieved MM, compared with 13.3% who received placebo

    Minimal Symptom Expression' in Patients With Acetylcholine Receptor Antibody-Positive Refractory Generalized Myasthenia Gravis Treated With Eculizumab

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    The efficacy and tolerability of eculizumab were assessed in REGAIN, a 26-week, phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive (AChR+) refractory generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG), and its open-label extension

    Penilaian Kinerja Keuangan Koperasi di Kabupaten Pelalawan

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    This paper describe development and financial performance of cooperative in District Pelalawan among 2007 - 2008. Studies on primary and secondary cooperative in 12 sub-districts. Method in this stady use performance measuring of productivity, efficiency, growth, liquidity, and solvability of cooperative. Productivity of cooperative in Pelalawan was highly but efficiency still low. Profit and income were highly, even liquidity of cooperative very high, and solvability was good

    Juxtaposing BTE and ATE – on the role of the European insurance industry in funding civil litigation