305,059 research outputs found

    Norm Estimates for the Difference Between Bochner's Integral and the Convex Combination of Function's Values

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    Norm estimates are developed between the Bochner integral of a vector-valued function in Banach spaces having the Radon-Nikodym property and the convex combination of function values taken on a division of the interval [a,b]

    Renormalization analysis of intermittency in two coupled maps

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    The critical behavior for intermittency is studied in two coupled one-dimensional (1D) maps. We find two fixed maps of an approximate renormalization operator in the space of coupled maps. Each fixed map has a common relavant eigenvaule associated with the scaling of the control parameter of the uncoupled one-dimensional map. However, the relevant ``coupling eigenvalue'' associated with coupling perturbation varies depending on the fixed maps. These renormalization results are also confirmed for a linearly-coupled case.Comment: 11 pages, RevTeX, 2 eps figure

    Kinetic stabilization of Fe film on (4 by 2)-GaAs(100)

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    We grow Fe film on (4 by 2)-GaAs(100) at low temperature, (~ 130 K) and study their chemical structure by photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. We observe the effective suppression of As segregation and remarkable reduction of alloy formation near the interface between Fe and substrate. Hence, this should be a way to grow virtually pristine Fe film on GaAs(100). Further, the Fe film is found stable against As segregation even after warmed up to room temperature. There only forms very thin, ~ 8 angstrom thick interface alloy. It is speculated that the interface alloy forms via surface diffusion mediated by interface defects formed during the low temperature growth of the Fe film. Further out-diffusion of both Ga and As are suppressed because it should then proceed via inefficient bulk diffusion.Comment: 4 figure

    Electronic structures of Zn1x_{1-x}Cox_xO using photoemission and x-ray absorption spectroscopy

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    Electronic structures of Zn1x_{1-x}Cox_xO have been investigated using photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The Co 3d states are found to lie near the top of the O 2p2p valence band, with a peak around 3\sim 3 eV binding energy. The Co 2p2p XAS spectrum provides evidence that the Co ions in Zn1x_{1-x}Cox_{x}O are in the divalent Co2+^{2+} (d7d^7) states under the tetrahedral symmetry. Our finding indicates that the properly substituted Co ions for Zn sites will not produce the diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor property.Comment: 3 pages, 2 figure

    Disassortativity of random critical branching trees

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    Random critical branching trees (CBTs) are generated by the multiplicative branching process, where the branching number is determined stochastically, independent of the degree of their ancestor. Here we show analytically that despite this stochastic independence, there exists the degree-degree correlation (DDC) in the CBT and it is disassortative. Moreover, the skeletons of fractal networks, the maximum spanning trees formed by the edge betweenness centrality, behave similarly to the CBT in the DDC. This analytic solution and observation support the argument that the fractal scaling in complex networks originates from the disassortativity in the DDC.Comment: 3 pages, 2 figure