4,181 research outputs found

    Reaction studied of steam with niobium and tantalum

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    Study reveals the kinetics of niobium and tantalum with steam at elevated temperatures to determine the suitability of high melting metals for fabrication of equipment for temperature steam environments. Niobium obeyed linear kinetics from 1050 degrees to 1500 degrees C but tantalum followed a paralinear rate law

    Endocannabinoid receptor blockade increases hepatocyte growth factor and reduces insulin levels in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

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    There is evidence from animal and in-vitro studies that activation of the endocannabinoid system (EC) through cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB-1) is associated with liver injury, inflammation and hepatocellular carcinoma.1 Data suggests endogenous cannabinoids (EC) are related to fatty liver metabolism with a role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through modulating lipid metabolism that may be ameliorated by CB1 receptor antagonism with rimonabant.2 This is of particular importance as NAFLD is the most common cause of chronic liver disease with liver dysfunction leading liver cirrhosis. The diagnosis of NAFLD can only be confirmed by a liver biopsy, as liver enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) used, as a serum marker may not be elevated

    Androsterone glucuronide to dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate ratio is discriminatory for obese Caucasian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

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    BACKGROUND: Androsterone glucuronide (ADTG) concentrations have been suggested as a marker of the effects of androgens at the target tissue level. As the mechanism for hyperandrogenemia in obese and nonobese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may differ, this study compared the different androgen parameters in non-obese compared to obese women with PCOS, and in normal subjects. METHODS: Eleven non-obese and 14 obese women with PCOS were recruited and compared to 11 control women without PCOS. Total testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), ADTG, and androstenedione were analysed using gold standard tandem mass spectrometry, and the free androgen index (FAI) was calculated. RESULTS: Total testosterone, ADTG and androstendione levels did not differ between non-obese (body mass index (BMI) ≤25 kg/m2) and obese PCOS (BMI >25 kg/m2) but all were significantly higher than for controls (p < 0.01). The ADTG to DHEAS ratio was significantly elevated 39 ± 6 (p < 0.01) in obese PCOS in comparison to non-obese PCOS and controls (28 ± 5 and 29 ± 4, respectively). The free androgen index (FAI) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were significantly higher in obese PCOS compared to non-obese PCOS and controls (p < 0.01). DHEAS was significantly higher in the non-obese versus obese PCOS (p < 0.01). All androgen parameters were significantly lower and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) significantly higher in normal subjects compared to those with obese and non-obese PCOS. CONCLUSIONS: The ADTG:DHEAS ratio was significantly elevated in obese PCOS compared to non-obese PCOS and controls suggesting that this may be a novel biomarker discriminatory for obese PCOS subjects, perhaps being driven by higher hepatic 5α reductase activity increasing ADTG formation in these women

    Nuclear factor I coordinates multiple phases of cerebellar granule cell development via regulation of cell adhesion molecules

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    A central question is how various stages of neuronal development are integrated as a differentiation program. Here we show that the nuclear factor I (NFI) family of transcriptional regulators is expressed and functions throughout the postmitotic development of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Expression of an NFI dominant repressor in CGN cultures blocked axon outgrowth and dendrite formation and decreased CGN migration. Inhibition of NFI transactivation also disrupted extension and fasciculation of parallel fibers as well as CGN migration to the internal granule cell layer in cerebellar slices. In postnatal day 17 Nfia-deficient mice, parallel fibers were greatly diminished and disoriented, CGN dendrite formation was dramatically impaired, and migration from the external germinal layer (EGL) was retarded. Axonal marker expression also was disrupted within the EGL of embryonic day 18 Nfib-null mice. NFI regulation of axon extension was observed under conditions of homotypic cell contact, implicating cell surface proteins as downstream mediators of its actions in CGNs. Consistent with this, the cell adhesion molecules ephrin B1 and N-cadherin were identified as NFI gene targets in CGNs using inhibitor and Nfi mutant analysis as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation. Functional inhibition of ephrin B1 or N-cadherin interfered with CGN axon extension and guidance, migration, and dendritogenesis in cell culture as well as in situ. These studies define NFI as a key regulator of postmitotic CGN development, in particular of axon formation, dendritogenesis, and migratory behavior. Furthermore, they reveal how a single transcription factor family can control and integrate multiple aspects of neuronal differentiation through the regulation of cell adhesion molecules

    Zonal mean and tidal dynamics from space: An empirical examination of aliasing and sampling issues

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    Interpretations of space-based measurements of atmospheric parameters in the mesosphere and thermosphere are complicated by large local-time variations at these altitudes. For this reason, satellite orbits are often preferred which precess through all local times one or more times per season. However, the local-time structure of the atmosphere is inherently non-stationary, which can lead to sampling and aliasing difficulties when attempting to deconvolve the measurements into zonal mean and tidal components. In the present study, hourly radar measurements of mesopause-region winds are used to form a mock data base which can be used to gain insight into implications of the aforementioned problems; the use of actual measurements introduces a realistic element of geophysical temporal variability. Assuming zonal symmetry (i.e., migrating tides superimposed on a zonal mean circulation), the radar measurements are sampled from the satellite perspective for orbital inclinations of 57° and 70°, and compared to the ground or true perspective. These comparisons provide realistic estimates of the errors to be expected when attempting to derive mean and tidal components from space-based measurements. For both diurnal and semidiurnal components, and the quoted satellite inclinations, acceptable errors (3–4m/srms) are obtained for data covering 24h local time (i.e., ascending plus descending nodes); the corresponding errors for single-node data (12h local-time coverage) are of order 8–11m/s, and therefore may not represent reliable estimates of the actual tidal components. There exist certain caveats in connection with the latter conclusion which are discussed

    Patterns of Antibiotic Resistance Among Group B Streptococcus Isolates: 2001–2004

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    The objectives were to determine the prevalence of group B streptococcus (GBS) and to characterize antibiotic resistance patterns. All pregnant women presenting to the triage units at two urban hospitals during three intervals from 2001 to 2004 were included. Each interval lasted approximately four weeks. Swabs were inoculated into selective broth and cultured on tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood. GBS was identified using the StrepTex latex agglutination system. GBS positive cultures were tested for their resistance to ampicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, and cefazolin. GBS was isolated from 154 (12.2%) of 1264 swabs collected during the study period. African-American women were more likely to be colonized with GBS than Caucasians and Hispanics. Resistance to routinely administered antibiotics was common, but there were no statistically significant increases in resistance to antibiotics over the study period. Ongoing surveillance of antibiotic resistance patterns is important in determining optimal prophylaxis and therapy