126 research outputs found

    Motivation and demotivation over two years: A case study of English language learners in Japan

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    This paper is about four Japanese university students majoring in international studies, who participated in a two-year study examining changes in their motivation. Using monthly interviews and a 29-item questionnaire on Dörnyei’s (2005) L2 motivational self system that was administered alongside each interview, the trajectories of learner motivation were investigated, based on both quantitative and qualitative data. First, changes in the participants’ motivation were identified using quantitative data. Next, a variety of motivators and demotivators that learners experienced both inside and outside of their classrooms were analyzed using the qualitative data. With the data obtained, this study focuses on how four learners’ language learning motivation and contexts adapt to each other, and how the dynamics of the four learners’ motivation changes due to their learning experiences. Each learner was different in their trajectory of motivation and the kinds of motivators and demotivators that they experienced in their particular contexts. The four learners underwent unique motivators and demotivators, and reacted differently. While participants identified their ideal L2 selves, or ought-to L2 selves, these self-guides were not strengthened by their L2 experiences over time. Based on these findings, the importance of studying the rich experiences of language learners in motivation research is discussed

    12 「英語学習動機の減退要因の探求」 -日本人学習者の調査を中心に-

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    言語学研究叢書No.5の紹

    Experimental model for the irradiation-mediated abscopal effect and factors influencing this effect

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    Radiotherapy (RT) is the primary treatment for cancer. Ionizing radiation from RT induces tumor damage at the irradiated site, and, although clinically infrequent, may cause regression of tumors distant from the irradiated site-a phenomenon known as the abscopal effect. Recently, the abscopal effect has been related to prolongation of overall survival time in cancer patients, though the factors that influence the abscopal effect are not well understood. The aim of this study is to clarify the factors influencing on abscopal effect. Here, we established a mouse model in which we induced the abscopal effect. We injected MC38 (mouse colon adenocarcinoma) cells subcutaneously into C57BL/6 mice at two sites. Only one tumor was irradiated and the sizes of both tumors were measured over time. The non-irradiated-site tumor showed regression, demonstrating the abscopal effect. This effect was enhanced by an increase in the irradiated-tumor volume and by administration of anti-PD1 antibody. When the abscopal effect was induced by a combination of RT and anti-PD1 antibody, it was also influenced by radiation dose and irradiated-tumor volume. These phenomena were also verified in other cell line, B16F10 cells (mouse melanoma cells). These findings provide further evidence of the mechanism for, and factors that influence, the abscopal effect in RT

    Visceral fat obesity is the key risk factor for the development of reflux erosive esophagitis in 40–69-years subjects

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    [Background] Visceral fat obesity can be defined quantitatively by abdominal computed tomography, however, the usefulness of measuring visceral fat area to assess the etiology of gastrointestinal reflux disease has not been fully elucidated. [Methods] A total of 433 healthy subjects aged 40–69 years (234 men, 199 women) were included in the study. The relationship between obesity-related factors (total fat area, visceral fat area, subcutaneous fat area, waist circumference, and body mass index) and the incidence of reflux erosive esophagitis was investigated. Lifestyle factors and stomach conditions relevant to the onset of erosive esophagitis were also analyzed. [Results] The prevalence of reflux erosive esophagitis was 27.2% (118/433; 106 men, 12 women). Visceral fat area was higher in subjects with erosive esophagitis than in those without (116.6 cm2 vs. 64.9 cm2, respectively). The incidence of erosive esophagitis was higher in subjects with visceral fat obesity (visceral fat area ≥ 100 cm2) than in those without (61.2% vs. 12.8%, respectively). Visceral fat obesity had the highest odds ratio (OR) among obesity-related factors. Multivariate analysis showed that visceral fat area was associated with the incidence of erosive esophagitis (OR = 2.18), indicating that it is an independent risk factor for erosive esophagitis. In addition, daily alcohol intake (OR = 1.54), gastric atrophy open type (OR = 0.29), and never-smoking history (OR = 0.49) were also independently associated with the development of erosive esophagitis. [Conclusions] Visceral fat obesity is the key risk factor for the development of reflux erosive esophagitis in subjects aged 40–69 years

    Committee report : Questionnaire survey on the treatment of COVID-19 in patients receiving dialysis therapy

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    Background: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who receive dialysis therapy develop more severe disease and have a poorer prognosis than patients who do not. Although various data on the treatment of patients not receiving dialysis therapy have been reported, clinical practice for patients on dialysis is challenging as data is limited. The Infection Control Committee of the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy decided to clarify the status of treatment in COVID-19 patients on dialysis. Methods: A questionnaire survey of 105 centers that had treated at least five COVID-19 patients on dialysis was conducted in August 2021. Results: Sixty-six centers (62.9%) responded to the questionnaire. Antivirals were administered in 27.7% of facilities treating mild disease (most patients received favipiravir) and 66.7% of facilities treating moderate disease (most patients with moderate or more severe conditions received remdesivir). Whether and how remdesivir is administered varies between centers. Steroids were initiated most frequently in moderate II disease (50.8%), while 43.1% of the facilities initiated steroids in mild or moderate I disease. The type of steroid, dose, and the duration of administration were generally consistent, with most facilities administering dexamethasone 6 mg orally or 6.6 mg intravenously for 10 days. Steroid pulse therapy was administered in 48.5% of the facilities, and tocilizumab was administered in 25.8% of the facilities, mainly to patients on ventilators or equivalent medications, or to the cases of exacerbations. Furthermore, some facilities used a polymethylmethacrylate membrane during dialysis, nafamostat as an anticoagulant, and continuous hemodiafiltration in severe cases. There was limited experience of polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column-direct hemoperfusion and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The discharge criteria for patients receiving dialysis therapy were longer than those set by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in 22.7% of the facilities. Conclusions: Our survey revealed a variety of treatment practices in each facility. Further evidence and innovations are required to improve the prognosis of patients with COVID-19 receiving dialysis therapy

    Investigation for the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccine in Japanese CKD patients treated with hemodialysis

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    Background: Dialysis patients are predisposed to severe disease and have a high mortality rate in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to their comorbidities and immunocompromised conditions. Therefore, dialysis patients should be prioritized for vaccination. This study aimed to examine how long the effects of the vaccine are maintained and what factors affect antibody titers. Methods: Hemodialysis patients (HD group) and age- and sex-matched non-dialysis individuals (Control group), receiving two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine, were recruited through the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy (JSDT) Web site in July 2021. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin (IgG) (SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers) was measured before vaccination, 3 weeks after the first vaccination, 2 weeks after the second vaccination, and 3 months after the second vaccination, and was compared between Control group and HD group. Factors affecting SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers were also examined using multivariable regression analysis and stepwise regression analysis (least AIC). In addition, we compared adverse reactions in Control and HD groups and examined the relationship between adverse reactions and SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers. Results: Our study enrolled 123 participants in the Control group (62.6% men, median age 67.0 years) and 206 patients in the HD group (64.1% men, median age 66.4 years). HD group had significantly lower SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers at 3 weeks after the first vaccination (p < 0.0001), 2 weeks after second vaccination (p = 0.0002), and 3 months after the second vaccination (p = 0.045) than Control group. However, the reduction rate of SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers between 2 weeks and 3 months after the second vaccination was significantly smaller in HD group than in Control (p = 0.048). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that dialysis time was identified as the significant independent factors for SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers at 2 weeks after the second vaccination in HD group (p = 0.002) and longer dialysis time resulted in higher maximum antibody titers. The incidences of fever and nausea after the second vaccination were significantly higher in the HD group (p = 0.039 and p = 0.020). Antibody titers in those with fever were significantly higher than those without fever in both groups (HD: p = 0.0383, Control: p = 0.0096). Conclusion: HD patients had significantly lower antibody titers than age- and sex-matched non-dialysis individuals over 3 months after vaccination. Dialysis time was identified as a factor affecting SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers in HD group, with longer dialysis time resulting in higher maximum SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers

    T-Cell Response and Antibody Production Induced by the COVID-19 Booster Vaccine in Japanese Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Treated with Hemodialysis

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    Humoral and cellular responses are critical in understanding immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination. Here, we evaluated these responses in hemodialysis (HD) patients after the booster vaccination. SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin (IgG) levels, neutralizing antibody titers, and the T-SPOT®.COVID test (T-SPOT) were measured prior to, three weeks after, and three months after the booster administration. The HD group had significantly higher SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels and neutralizing antibody titers against the original strain at three weeks and three months after the booster vaccination compared to the control group, albeit the HD group had lower SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels and neutralizing antibody titers before the booster administration. Moreover, the HD group had significantly higher T-SPOT levels at all three time points compared to the control group. The HD group also had significantly higher local and systemic adverse reaction rates than the control group. By booster vaccination, HD patients could acquire more effective SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular immunity than the control group
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