1,762 research outputs found

    Impact of Job Complexity and Performance on CFO Compensation

    Get PDF
    Prior research suggests that Big 4 auditors provide higher quality audits by virtue of their large size. Still, the recent reforms mandated by the Sarbanes Oxley Act – by increasing client and auditor incentives for accurate reporting – may have narrowed audit quality differences across auditor groups. In this paper, we examine audit quality for Big 4 and Mid-tier auditors during 2003-06 and include clients of other smaller audit firms for comparison purposes. We examine actual audit quality (as proxied by earnings management metrics) as well as perceived audit quality (as proxied by the client- and year-specific eloading and ex ante equity risk premium metrics). We include in our analysis only those Big 4 clients for whom the Mid-tier firms are potentially viable as auditors. Relative to other smaller audit firm clients, we find Big 4 and Mid-tier audit clients to have (1) lower levels of accrual management, (2) higher levels of real earnings management, and (3) higher levels of investor-perceived accruals quality. In each case, we were unable to reject the null that Big 4 and Mid-tier audits are similar. However, we find Big 4 audit clients to have a lower client-specific ex ante equity risk premium relative to both Mid-tier and other smaller audit firm clients. Collectively, our findings indicate that in situations where a Mid-tier auditor is potentially viable, Big 4 clients could utilize a Mid-tier firm without adversely affecting audit quality. Still, the results suggest that Big 4 clients have a lower ex ante cost of equity capital which is likely related to the insurance considerations (“deep pockets”) – rather than the audit quality -- associated with having a Big 4 auditor.Auditor concentration, Audit quality, Earnings management, Cost of equity capital.

    Litigation Risk and Abnormal Accruals

    Get PDF
    In this paper, we examine the relation between auditor litigation risk and abnormal accruals over the 1989-2007 time period. We address potential endogeneity in prior studies by jointly modeling abnormal accruals and litigation risk in a simultaneous equation system. Our findings suggest that client-specific litigation risk affects auditor incentives to acquiesce to client demands for earnings management, i.e., the higher the risk of auditor litigation, the greater the auditor’s restraining influence on the abnormal accruals reported by the client. We also find evidence that abnormal accruals increase the likelihood of auditor litigation. We also document that the 1995 Public Securities Litigation Reform Act (PSLRA) lowered the client-specific risk of auditor litigation. Litigation reform remains a topic of ongoing interest. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the effects of litigation reform (and related changes in legal exposure) on auditor incentives and earnings management.: Litigation risk, abnormal accruals, auditor incentives

    Development of SSR markers and construction of a linkage map in jute

    Get PDF
    Jute is an important natural fibre crop, which is only second to cotton in its importance at the global level. It is mostly grown in Indian subcontinent and has been recently used for the development of genomics resources. We recently initiated a programme to develop simple sequence repeat markers and reported a set of 2469 SSR that were developed using four SSR-enriched libraries (Mir et al. 2009). In this communication, we report an additional set of 607 novel SSR in 393 SSR containing sequences. However, primers could be designed for only 417 potentially useful SSR. Polymorphism survey was carried out for 374 primer pairs using two parental genotypes (JRO 524 and PPO4) of a mapping population developed for fibre fineness; only 66 SSR were polymorphic. Owing to a low level of polymorphism between the parental genotypes and a high degree of segregation distortion in recombinant inbred lines, genotypic data of only 53 polymorphic SSR on the mapping population consisting of 120 RIL could be used for the construction of a linkage map; 36 SSR loci were mapped on six linkage groups that covered a total genetic distance of 784.3 cM. Hopefully, this map will be enriched with more SSR loci in future and will prove useful for identification of quantitative trait loci/genes for molecular breeding involving improvement of fibre fineness and other related traits in jute

    Persistencia de malezas gramíneas en cultivos de trigo del sudeste bonaerense

    Get PDF
    En la presente tesis se estudió la persistencia de especies poáceas en cultivos de trigo del sudeste de Buenos Aires. En dicha región, Avena fatua L. y Lolium multiflorum Lam. son las malezas poáceas más importantes, tanto por la dificultad de control como por sus efectos competitivos sobre el cultivo. A los efectos de cuantificar la persistencia de dichas especies, se estudió la composición de la comunidad de malezas en dos momentos del ciclo: preaplicación de herbicidas y precosecha. Individuos de ambas malezas fueron registrados en ambos momentos como consecuencia de “escapes” al control realizado con herbicidas, siendo A. fatua más constante que L. mutiflorum. Posteriormente, se estudiaron los procesos que definen la persistencia de ambas malezas. Los resultados obtenidos indican que el ajuste del momento de emergencia es jerárquicamente el factor más importante para explicar la persistencia de A. fatua. Se demostró que los modelos de germinación son diferentes según las semillas provengan de un lote agrícola o de una condición de no cultivo, siendo estas diferencias de naturaleza genética. Por otro lado, la variabilidad en la supervivencia a los herbicidas es el factor que mejor explica la persistencia de L. multiflorum, habiéndose documentado resistencia cruzada a los herbicidas inhibidores de la ALS, pyroxsulam, imazamox y flucarbazone, sin antecedentes previos en la región. Los índices de resistencia encontrados presentan variación con la temperatura ambiente en post-aplicación del herbicida, habiéndose registrado mayor resistencia con mayor temperatura. Además, se comprobó que los individuos resistentes presentan menor tiempo a floración que los susceptibles. Tal atributo puede significar una ventaja demográfica para dichas poblaciones. Queda así demostrada la persistencia de A. fatua y L. multiflorum durante el ciclo del cultivo más allá de las prácticas de control realizadas y la participación de dos procesos demográficos distintos (establecimiento y supervivencia) en dicha persistencia

    Two Glycosylation Sites in H5N1 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin That Affect Binding Preference by Computer-Based Analysis

    Get PDF
    Increasing numbers of H5N1 influenza viruses (IVs) are responsible for human deaths, especially in North Africa and Southeast Asian. The binding of hemagglutinin (HA) on the viral surface to host sialic acid (SA) receptors is a requisite step in the infection process. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that H5N1 viruses can be divided into 10 clades based on their HA sequences, with most human IVs centered from clade 1 and clade 2.1 to clade 2.3. Protein sequence alignment in various clades indicates the high conservation in the receptor-binding domains (RBDs) is essential for binding with the SA receptor. Two glycosylation sites, 158N and 169N, also participate in receptor recognition. In the present work, we attempted to construct a serial H5N1 HA models including diverse glycosylated HAs to simulate the binding process with various SA receptors in silico. As the SA-α-2,3-Gal and SA-α-2,6-Gal receptor adopted two distinctive topologies, straight and fishhook-like, respectively, the presence of N-glycans at 158N would decrease the affinity of HA for all of the receptors, particularly SA-α-2,6-Gal analogs. The steric clashes of the huge glycans shown at another glycosylation site, 169N, located on an adjacent HA monomer, would be more effective in preventing the binding of SA-α-2,3-Gal analogs

    In Vitro Aggregation Behavior of a Non-Amyloidogenic λ Light Chain Dimer Deriving from U266 Multiple Myeloma Cells

    Get PDF
    Excessive production of monoclonal light chains due to multiple myeloma can induce aggregation-related disorders, such as light chain amyloidosis (AL) and light chain deposition diseases (LCDD). In this work, we produce a non-amyloidogenic IgE λ light chain dimer from human mammalian cells U266, which originated from a patient suffering from multiple myeloma, and we investigate the effect of several physicochemical parameters on the in vitro stability of this protein. The dimer is stable in physiological conditions and aggregation is observed only when strong denaturating conditions are applied (acidic pH with salt at large concentration or heating at melting temperature Tm at pH 7.4). The produced aggregates are spherical, amorphous oligomers. Despite the larger β-sheet content of such oligomers with respect to the native state, they do not bind Congo Red or ThT. The impossibility to obtain fibrils from the light chain dimer suggests that the occurrence of amyloidosis in patients requires the presence of the light chain fragment in the monomer form, while dimer can form only amorphous oligomers or amorphous deposits. No aggregation is observed after denaturant addition at pH 7.4 or at pH 2.0 with low salt concentration, indicating that not a generic unfolding but specific conformational changes are necessary to trigger aggregation. A specific anion effect in increasing the aggregation rate at pH 2.0 is observed according to the following order: SO4−≫Cl−>H2PO4−, confirming the peculiar role of sulfate in promoting protein aggregation. It is found that, at least for the investigated case, the mechanism of the sulfate effect is related to protein secondary structure changes induced by anion binding

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton–proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV

    Get PDF
    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript −1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an