8,525 research outputs found

    From Social Control to Financial Economics: The Linked Ecologies of Economics and Business in Twentieth Century America

    Get PDF
    This article draws on historical material to examine the co-evolution of economic science and business education over the course of the twentieth century, showing that fields evolve not only through internal struggles but also through struggles taking place in adjacent fields. More specifically, we argue that the scientific strategies of business schools played an essential—if largely invisible and poorly understood—role in major transformations in the organization and substantive direction of social-scientific knowledge, and specifically economic knowledge, in twentieth century America. We use the Wharton School as an illustration of the earliest trends and dilemmas (ca. 1900–1930), when business schools found themselves caught between their business connections and their striving for moral legitimacy in higher education. Next, we look at the creation of the Carnegie Tech Graduate School of Industrial Administration after World War II. This episode illustrates the increasingly successful claims of social scientists, backed by philanthropic foundations, on business education and the growing appeal of “scientific” approaches to decision-making and management. Finally, we argue that the rise of the Graduate School of Business at the University of Chicago from the 1960s onwards (and its closely related cousin at the University of Rochester) marks the decisive ascendancy of economics, and particularly financial economics, in business education over the other behavioral disciplines. We document the key role of these institutions in diffusing “Chicago-style” economic approaches—offering support for deregulatory policies and popularizing narrowly financial understandings of the firm—that sociologists have described as characteristic of the modern neo liberal regime

    The Effect of Repeal of the Capital Gain Preference on Venture-Backed Companies

    Get PDF
    The 1986 Tax Reform Act eliminated preferential tax treatment of capital gains. Proposals to reinstate the preference suggest that risky new investment will suffer without favorable treatment of investment returns. Others have argued that capital for risky new ventures is largely supplied by tax-exempt institutions, who are expected to be indifferent to the taxation of realized gains. This study evaluates the effects of the repeal of preferential capital gains taxation on venture backed firms. The results show negative abnormal returns for sample firms following the Senate’s vote to repeal the capital gain preference. The returns were more negative for firms with a high debt-to-assets ratio, suggesting a more adverse effect for firms relying on equity finance for future capital needs. Sample firms were expected to be particularly sensitive to the tax change, and the results may not be generalizable to other forms of risky investment

    Flash-lag chimeras: the role of perceived alignment in the composite face effect

    Get PDF
    Spatial alignment of different face halves results in a configuration that mars the recognition of the identity of either face half (). What would happen to the recognition performance for face halves that were aligned on the retina but were perceived as misaligned, or were misaligned on the retina but were perceived as aligned? We used the 'flash-lag' effect () to address these questions. We created chimeras consisting of a stationary top half-face initially aligned with a moving bottom half-face. Flash-lag chimeras were better recognized than their stationary counterparts. However when flashed face halves were presented physically ahead of moving halves thereby nulling the flash-lag effect, recognition was impaired. This counters the notion that relative movement between the two face halves per se is sufficient to explain better recognition of flash-lag chimeras. Thus, the perceived spatial alignment of face halves (despite retinal misalignment) impairs recognition, while perceived misalignment (despite retinal alignment) does not

    Somatic embryogenesis from mature caryopsis culture under abiotic stress and optimization of Agrobacterium-mediated transient GUS gene expression in embryogenic callus of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Get PDF
    Induction and development of embryogenic callus from mature caryopsis culture of rice (Oryza sativa cv. ADT41) was performed by placing sterilized seeds on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or 2,4-D (2.5, 5.0 and 10 mg/l). Morphogenesis in terms of somatic embryogenesis was recorded and 53% embryogenic callus formed by caryopsis culture indicates high chance of regenerating plants eventually. Furthermore, for water stress treatments, sterilized caryopses were cultured on semisolid MS medium supplemented with (5.0mg/l) of 2, 4-D and various concentrations of mannitol (2.5M, 5M and 10M) were added. Present study indicates that potentials of tissues for callus induction and embryo differentiation gradually decline if the level of mannitol is being increased in the nutrient media. Significantly, at high level of mannitol (5M), direct somatic embryo differentiation from the epicotyl tissues was also evident along with embryogenic callus formation at the basal region of the seedling. Similarly for salt stress treatments, MS medium was supplemented with various concentrations of NaCl (50 mM, 100 mM and 250 mM) along with 2, 4-D (5.0 mg/l). Results obtained on salt–stress treatments indicate that cultured rice cells may respond variously depending on the concentration of salt-stress present in the culture medium. Also, transformation experiments were conducted to optimize the transient GUS gene expression in mature caryopsis derived embryogenic callus by employing the various strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying the same plasmids or others. Calli were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium strains GV2260 (p35SGUSINT), LBA4404 (p35SGUSINT) and LBA4404 (pCAMBIA 3301) in the presence of acetosyringone (200 μM). Transformation events were best recorded in calli treated with Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harbouring the plasmid p35SGUSINT, as evidenced by maximum frequency (29%) of transient GUS gene expression on histochemical assay and it was followed by strain GV2260 (p35SGUSINT), however, Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 (pCAMBIA3301) could be proved the least effective in terms of frequency of transient transformation and expression of GUS reporter gene in target tissues

    Ideal operators and relative Godun sets

    Get PDF
    In this paper we study ideals in Banach spaces through ideal operators. We provide characterisation of recently introduced notion of almost isometric ideal which is a version of Principle of Local Reexivity for a subspace of a Banach space. Studying ideals through ideal operators give us better insight in to the properties of these subspaces vis-a-vis properties of the space itself. We provide a few applications of our characterisation theorem.The National Board for Higher Mathematics (NBHM) of India. (No.2/40(2)/2014/R&D-II/6252).peerReviewe

    Antibiofilm Potential of Metal Based Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Mode of Action

    Get PDF
    oai:ojs.pkp.sfu.ca:article/2Biofilm refers to a group of microbes colonizing together and often adhered to a surface. The adherence is attributed to secretion of polymeric substances comprising of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides thereby limiting the access and inhibitory activity of existing antimicrobial agents. Biofilm are a major cause of acute infections and pose immense clinical threat especially in conditions employing the use of invasive devices thus being a major source of mortality and morbidity. Hence there is a dire need to develop alternative treatment against biofilm-related infections. Advances in nanotechnology has opened new horizons. Nanoparticles derived from various metal present promising candidates to ameliorate biofilms owing to their antioxidant potential

    Formulation And Characterization of Carageenan Gels Encapsulating Amphotericin B And Lactobacillus acidophilus Against Candidal Vaginitis

    Get PDF
    The present study is concerned with the development and characterization of bioadhesive carageenan gel encapsulating Amphotericin B and Lactobacillus acidophillus, prepared by graft co-polymeriztion against Candidal vaginitis. Intravaginal gel systems based on bioadhesive polymer (carrageenan) were characterized with respect to swelling index, bioadhesive strength, percent encapsulation and in vitro drug release antimicrobial studies. A marked increase in swelling index of gel encapsulating Lactobacillus was found to be 1.9±0.35. The percent encapsulation of drug was found to be 98.63%±.0.2% and that of Lactobacillus was 91.81 ±0.01. The viability was observed for interval of 6 hrs on trypton soya agar and showed that viability was highly conserved till 4 hrs. The antimicrobial study of gels encapsulating Amphotericin B and Lactobacillus showed that carageenan gel can inhibit Candida albicans upto a maximum extent. Bioadhesivity study also conducted for gels that showed a bioadhesivity of 84.66% ±.0.5% with drug, 88.66% ±.02% with Lactobacillus. In-vitro drug release showed a sustained type release of drug from the polymer i.e. there was initial burst of Amphotericin B up to 5 hours, after which there was a sustained release upto 10 days. Thus it has been concluded from the present study that bioadhesive gels encapsulating Amphotericin B can act as promising drug carriers along with Lactobacillus against candidal vaginitis

    Angiogenesis-dependent and independent phases of intimal hyperplasia.

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Neointimal vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is a primary cause of occlusive vascular disease, including atherosclerosis, restenosis after percutaneous interventions, and bypass graft stenosis. Angiogenesis is implicated in the progression of early atheromatous lesions in animal models, but its role in neointimal VSMC proliferation is undefined. Because percutaneous coronary interventions result in induction of periadventitial angiogenesis, we analyzed the role of this process in neointima formation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Local injury to the arterial wall in 2 different animal models induced periadventitial angiogenesis and neointima formation. Application of angiogenesis stimulators vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A165) or a proline/arginine-rich peptide (PR39) to the adventitia of the injured artery induced a marked increase in neointimal thickening beyond that seen with injury alone in both in vivo models. Inhibition of either VEGF (with soluble VEGF receptor 1 [sFlt1]) or fibroblast growth factor (FGF) (with a dominant=negative form of FGF receptor 1 [FGF-R1DN]), respectively, signaling reduced adventitial thickening induced by VEGF and PR39 to the level seen with mechanical arterial injury alone. However, neither inhibitor was effective in preventing neointimal thickening after mechanical injury when administered in the absence of angiogenic growth factor. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that adventitial angiogenesis stimulates intimal thickening but does not initiate it
    • …