1,875 research outputs found

    Cancer morbidity in rheumatoid arthritis: role of estrogen metabolites

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    Estrogen metabolites have been implicated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and cancer, although the mechanism remains unestablished. Some estrogen metabolites, which are used for the assessment of cancer risk, play an important role in RA. The pathways by which malignancies associated with RA remain elusive. Possible mechanism involves enzymatic or nonenzymatic oxidation of estrogen into catecholestrogen metabolites through semiquinone and quinone redox cycle to produce free radicals that can cause DNA modifications. Modifications of DNA alter its immunogenicity and trigger various immune responses leading to elevated levels of cancer and RA antibodies. However, the role of different estrogen metabolites as a mediator of immune response cannot be ruled out in various immune-related diseases

    Autoantibodies and Cytokines in Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder in which increased autoantibody production and enhanced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines are the hallmark of the disease. A strictly controlled balance of antibody production and proinflammatory cytokines is the key to the healthy state. A slight tilt in this balance causes proinflammatory diseases. In RA there is an increased production of autoantibodies such as rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA), anti-cartilage type II antibodies, and etc., which have a prominent clinical significance. Furthermore, there is increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 (IL-1) which have an impact of great magnitude on the RA disease progression and severity. A better understanding of the mechanism of autoantibody production and secretion of cytokines together with crosstalk between immune cells and cytokines can provide us a better insight into the disease pathogenesis as well disease prognosis and management

    ANALYSIS OF INVISIBLE CHILD LABOUR IN HAYATABAD, PESHAWAR

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    This study was undertaken in Hayatabad Town, Peshawar. The study investigates socio-economic factors affecting invisible child labour. The study was based on a sample of 95 households and the data were collected in July 2006. The study found that although the wages of working children were small but they contributed significantly to their households’ income. More than half of the working children were not satisfied with their present job and their employers and more than half of working children reported that their employers were harsh with them. The regression results showed that household income, landholdings and parents’ education were significant determinants of invisible child labour in the study area.Invisible child labour, poverty, Hayatabad, Pakistan

    WIRELESS HAND GESTURE ROBOT USING DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

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    To build RF based hand gesture robot which can be controlled through RF technology, where the decision of the gesture will be taken on behalf of image processing in MATLAB. To control the motion of the robot i.e. moving forward, moving backward, moving left and moving right. Moreover the information regarding direction will also be displayed on the transmitter end. In this system microcontroller is used as a central part to control the movement and direction of the Robot. The movement of the robot is controlled by hand gesture, the robot moves at a particular direction where hand gives a gesture. In this system for the detection of hand movement, DIP(digital image processing) tool is used which detect the hand and give information to the microcontroller which gives command to the transmitter. The transmitter transmits the desire signal to receiver side. The receiver gives command to microcontroller on the receiver side and the robot moves toward the desire place or direction. Â

    Methodology for the Perseverance to Node Mobility Issues in Underwater Sensor Network (UWSN)

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    Now a days, Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is effecting each and every area of life. Underwater Sensor Network (UWSN) is a great development in WSN. UWSN is the foremost research area because of its advantages in seismic monitoring, study of flora and fauna, defense services, weather monitoring, pollution monitoring etc. UWSN is experiencing many challenges in its deployment, routing, communication due to terrible underwater environment. One major challenge is the use of acoustic signal because in UWSN we cannot use radio signals. Some other limitations are propagation delays, larger distance, 3D architecture, node mobility due to water etc. In this paper we have reviewed various existing methods for node mobility based on vector, AUV, path and clusters and proposed a new approach for communication in underwater environment by giving solution to the node mobility issue in 3D based deployment. Proposed approach is using Euclidean distance formula and OSPF dynamic routing, executed and compared with previous algorithms with significant improvement

    Effect of Peer Assessment on English Writing Mechanics and Writing Apprehension of Undergraduate Students

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    Writing as communicative skill plays significant role in human life. Writer can communicate well by incorporating writing mechanics properly. Writing apprehension hinders the writers to write what they want to communicate. An experimental study was conducted to find out the effect of peer assessment as an instructional technique on English writing mechanics and English writing apprehension of undergraduate students. Pre-and post-test control group experimental design was used to measure the effect of peer assessment. Researchers selected forty (40) undergraduate students randomly from a public sector associate college from district Lahore. The sample was divided into two equal groups. Peer assessment was used as intervention with the experimental group for 12 weeks. English writing mechanics were assessed through a test with three extended response items. English writing apprehension was measured through Likert type scale of English writing apprehension inventory. Data were analyzed by applying paired and independent samples t-test statistics. Findings reveal that peer assessment is effective to improve English writing mechanics and to reduce English writing apprehension of undergraduate students. Undergraduate level English teachers are recommended to use peer assessment as an instructional technique to improve students English writing mechanics and to reduce English writing apprehension

    WIRELESS HAND GESTURE ROBOT USING DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

    Get PDF
    To build RF based hand gesture robot which can be controlled through RF technology, where the decision of the gesture will be taken on behalf of image processing in MATLAB. To control the motion of the robot i.e. moving forward, moving backward, moving left and moving right. Moreover the information regarding direction will also be displayed on the transmitter end. In this system microcontroller is used as a central part to control the movement and direction of the Robot. The movement of the robot is controlled by hand gesture, the robot moves at a particular direction where hand gives a gesture. In this system for the detection of hand movement, DIP(digital image processing) tool is used which detect the hand and give information to the microcontroller which gives command to the transmitter. The transmitter transmits the desire signal to receiver side. The receiver gives command to microcontroller on the receiver side and the robot moves toward the desire place or direction. 
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