150 research outputs found

    Searching Focalization in The Prussian Officer by D. H. Lawrence

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    In this paper I will try to analyse the underlying meaning of the short story The Prussian Officer from the level of narration and focalization. Narration is the process of narrating a story mediated through the voice of the narrator (identified as who speaks?) And Focalization is viewpoint or the perception through which the events are being reported (identified as who sees?). The novel focuses on the suffering and self-deterioration of a young soldier by his captain who seeks forbidden sexual admiration that makes the soldier victim to the captain’s sexual frustration. The narrator allows readers to learn the minds of characters from shifting the internal focalization simultaneously. Under the light of Narrative theory of Gerard Genette Narrative Discourse this paper will focus on how the narrative information filters through the shifting focalization between the two main characters in the story and their repressed conscious struggle and how this influences the narration. All the narratological models prepared and presented for analysis of the text based on the basic difference between story and discourse. On this basis an author can create multi-layers to present his story in different aspect. Since, the story remains same and is independent of its narrative form mainly discourse therefore, we may report same course of event in more than one version or point of view. On this basis the original chain of events presented through the discourse may have several different ways other than one single perspective. Gerard Genette named it focalization and discussed in detail in his work Narrative Discourse

    Finding Narrated, Unnarrated and Disnarrated in James Joyce’s “The Sisters”

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    “The Sisters” is the first story in the Dubliners, a collection of fifteen short stories by James Joyce, first published in 1914. Most of the stories in the collection are in descriptive style either by the characters in first person narration or by omniscient in third person speech. The descriptive narrative is incorporated with fewer dialogues selectively at some crucial event. Story, “The Sisters” is one of the most perfectly crafted narratives from the point of view of a young boy who is also the character. The narrative of the story deals with multiple issues of religion, relationships, belief, paralysis (an abnormal physical state denoting mental illness as well) death and freedom and choose to disnarrated many events to create a sense of suspense and illusion in the story. Unnarrated and disnarrated is one of the emerging new techniques in the field of narrative theory. These narrative tool are discussed in great detail by Gerald Prince an American academic and literary theoretician, in an brief essay published in first issue of Style in 1988 This paper will analyse these narrative techniques and their application in the text and their after effects to the new kind of meaning they provide to it

    Comparison of efficacy of Drotaverine hydrochloride and Valethamate bromide in the augmentation of labour: a hospital based randomized trial

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    Background: Labour is a process of contraction with the goal of producing progressive cervical effacement and dilatation in order to expel the uterine foetus from the intrauterine to the extra-uterine environment. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of drotaverine hydrochloride and valethamate bromide for shortening the duration of labour.Methods: This randomized trial was conducted at R. G. Kar Medical College over one year. Total 360 primigravida or multigravidae mothers satisfying the criteria of having singleton term pregnancy with cephalic presentation with spontaneous onset of labour were included and allocated randomly into Drotavarine Group (Group 1) and Valethamate Group (Group 2).Results: There was statistically significant reduction of mean duration of first stage of labour both in primigravida (123.12±37.82 min versus 156.30±45.10 min) and multigravidae (102.75± 36.90 min versus 139.98±45.89 min) in Group 1 than Group 2. P value ˂0.0001 in each Group. The mean rate of cervical dilatation in Group 1 was 3.0±0.41 cm/hr and 3.5±0.414 cm/hr in primigravida and multigravidae respectively. 2.67±0.51 cm/hr in primigravida and 2.90±0.44cm/hr in multigravidae in Group 2. It was statistically significant (p˂0.0001 in both Groups). Mean injection to delivery interval both in primigravida and multigravidae of Group 1 were significantly less than Group 2 (p=0.0006 and p˂0.0001 respectively). Modes of delivery were comparable in both Groups (p=0.756). Few maternal complications like transient tachycardia was more (12) in VB Group in compare to DH (3). Although it was not statistically significant (p=0.268). Foetal complications including Apgar score at 1 min and 5 min in both Groups were comparable in both primigravida and multigravidae (P value 0.39718 and 0.285 respectively).Conclusions: Drotaverine hydrochloride has promising beneficial effects on labour and it is safe to use

    CR-warped product submanifolds of locally conformal Kaehler manifolds

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    In the present paper characterizations in terms of the canonical structures P and F on a CR-submanifold of a locally conformal Kaehler manifold are worked out under which the sub manifold reduces to a CR-warped product submanifold

    M. tuberculosis Reprograms Hematopoietic Stem Cells to Limit Myelopoiesis and Impair Trained Immunity

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    A greater understanding of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) regulation is required for dissecting protective versus detrimental immunity to pathogens that cause chronic infections such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We have shown that systemic administration of Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) or beta-glucan reprograms HSCs in the bone marrow (BM) via a type II interferon (IFN-II) or interleukin-1 (IL1) response, respectively, which confers protective trained immunity against Mtb. Here, we demonstrate that, unlike BCG or beta-glucan, Mtb reprograms HSCs via an IFN-I response that suppresses myelopoiesis and impairs development of protective trained immunity to Mtb. Mechanistically, IFN-I signaling dysregulates iron metabolism, depolarizes mitochondrial membrane potential, and induces cell death specifically in myeloid progenitors. Additionally, activation of the IFN-I/iron axis in HSCs impairs trained immunity to Mtb infection. These results identify an unanticipated immune evasion strategy of Mtb in the BM that controls the magnitude and intrinsic anti-microbial capacity of innate immunity to infection

    The Influence of Slip Condition on the Thin Film Flow of a Third Order Fluid

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    Abstract: This paper deals with the influence of slip condition on a thin film flow of a third order fluid. We investigate the thin film flow of non-Newtonian fluid (i) when moves down an inclined plane and (ii) when moves on a moving belt with slip condition using the traditional perturbation technique and HPM. The results obtained using both techniques are compared. The expressions for volume flux and average film velocity are also expressed

    Nutritional composition, vitamins, minerals and toxic heavy metals analysis of Trianthema portulacastrum L., a wild edible plant from Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

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    This study aimed at analyzing the nutritional potential of a wild edible plant, Trianthema portulacastrum L. widely used in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The nutritional composition, vitamins, minerals and heavy elements were analyzed following the standard methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). The nutritional assessment included determination of moisture, ash, lipid, fiber, protein, carbohydrate and energy. Among the nutrient values, fiber was found to be the highest (430.0 mg/g), followed by ash (348.0 mg/g), total protein (91.9 mg/g), moisture (80.0 mg/g), carbohydrate (30.2 mg/g) and total lipid (20.0 mg/g). The vitamins analyzed were found to have greater value for riboflavin (2.02 mg/g), than retinol (0.81 mg/g). Among the macro minerals, potassium was present in high concentration (51.6 mg/g) than sodium (44.0 mg/g). The trace elements were assessed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and their decreasing order was Fe>Zn>Mn>Ni>Cu. Two toxic metals, Pb and Cd were present in very minute quantities of 0.08 and 0.0006 mg/g, respectively. The results suggest that T. portulacastrum L. is a good source of fiber, proteins, riboflavin, potassium, sodium and iron.Keywords: Peshawar, Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), Trianthema portulacastrum L., nutritional composition, vitamins, minerals.African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(42), pp. 6079-608

    Infergen stimulated macrophages restrict Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth by autophagy and release of nitric oxide

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    IFN alfacon-1 (Infergen) is a synthetic form of Interferon (IFN)-α2b. Infergen has immunomodulatory activity and is effective against hepatitis C virus. However, the effect of Infergen (IFG) on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has not yet been reported. Therefore, for the first time, we have studied the influence of IFG in constraining the survival of Mtb in human macrophages. We observed that IFG significantly enhanced the maturation and activation of macrophages. Further, it substantially augmented the secretion of IL-6, Nitric Oxide (NO) and antigen uptake. Moreover, macrophages exhibited remarkably higher bactericidal activity, as evidenced by reduction in the Mtb growth. Infergen-mediated mechanism was different from the type-1 interferons; since it worked through the activation of NF-κB, phosphorylation of STAT-3 and Akt-PI3K that improved the bactericidal activity through autophagy and NO release. In future, IFG immunotherapy can be a novel strategy for treating patients and controlling TB

    Beyond Killing Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Disease Tolerance

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    Host defense strategies against infectious diseases are comprised of both host resistance and disease tolerance. Resistance is the ability of the host to prevent invasion or to eliminate the pathogen, while disease tolerance is defined by limiting the collateral tissue damage caused by the pathogen and/or the immune response without exerting direct effects on pathogen growth. Our incomplete understanding of host immunity against tuberculosis (TB) is predominately rooted in our bias toward investigating host resistance. Thus, we must refocus our efforts to understand the entire spectrum of immunity against M. tuberculosis to control TB
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