29,851 research outputs found

    Denial of service attacks and challenges in broadband wireless networks

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    Broadband wireless networks are providing internet and related services to end users. The three most important broadband wireless technologies are IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.16, and Wireless Mesh Network (WMN). Security attacks and vulnerabilities vary amongst these broadband wireless networks because of differences in topologies, network operations and physical setups. Amongst the various security risks, Denial of Service (DoS) attack is the most severe security threat, as DoS can compromise the availability and integrity of broadband wireless network. In this paper, we present DoS attack issues in broadband wireless networks, along with possible defenses and future directions

    DOTS Awareness and the Myths and Misconceptions about DOTS among Medical Practitioners in Mysore

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    Background: Annually 2 million people in India develop Tuberculosis and 330,000 die. WHO-recommended DOTS strategy was pilot-tested in 1993 and launched as Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP) in 1997. Awareness of DOTS among the doctors in the private sector was appalling although nationwide coverage was attained by 2006. OBJECTIVE: To study awareness of DOTS among Medical Practitioners of urban and rural Mysore. Methodology: 401 Medical practitioners in hospitals and nursing homes of urban and rural areas of Mysore who treated Tuberculosis patients (private and public sector) were approached. They were grouped under different specialties as per the year of graduation (before or after introduction of DOTS). Results: 38 % doctors who graduated before the introduction of DOTS didn’t follow DOTS compared to 14.9% doctors who graduated later. 100% doctors working in Government sector felt that DOTS was better than daily regimen while 85% from the private sector felt so. Only 47.9% of the doctors in the private sector practiced DOTS compared to 95.1 % in the Govt. Sector. Hence, the number of doctors practicing DOTS in Private Sector was less than 50 % of that in the Govt. Sector. Both of these comparisons were found to be statistically highly significant (p<0.001). Awareness of DOTS was alarmingly low among Orthopedic Surgeons, Gynecologists and Pediatricians when compared to Physicians and General Practitioners. Conclusions: DOTS awareness is still low among doctors who graduated before the introduction of DOTS. Private practitioners harbored myths and misconceptions about DOTS

    Effect of soil applied zinc sulphate on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown on a calcareous soil in Pakistan

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    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soil application of zinc fertilizer on yield and yield components of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Inqlab 91) grown on calcareous soil in Pakistan. The levels of zinc sulphate were 0 (control), 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 kg ha-2 and the zinc sulphate was combine-drilled at the time of sowing. Zinc sulphate increased the Leaf Area Index, the total number of fertile tillers m -2, number of spikelets spike-2, spike length, grain spike-2, thousand grain weight, grain yield, straw yield and biological yield and decreased harvest index. Most of the response trends were curvilinear although the decrease in harvest index was linear. All applications of zinc sulphate gave economic increases in margins over costs but the application of 5 kg ha-2 gave the highest marginal rate of return. It is recommended that under such calcareous soil conditions growers can expect good returns from the application of 5 kg zinc sulphate ha-2 at the time of sowing but if the grain price were to increase or the price of zinc sulphate were reduced economic responses could be expected from higher levels of zinc sulphate. © 2008 Akadémiai Kiadó

    S-wave charmed mesons in lattice NRQCD

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    Heavy-light mesons can be studied using the 1/M expansion of NRQCD, provided the heavy quark mass is sufficiently large. Calculations of the S-wave charmed meson masses from a classically and tadpole-improved action are presented. A comparison of O(1/M), O(1/M^2) and O(1/M^3) results allows convergence of the expansion to be discussed. It is shown that the form of discretized heavy quark propagation must be chosen carefully.Comment: LATTICE98(heavyqk), 3 pages including 3 figure

    Effectiveness of an integrated diabetes care package at primary healthcare facilities: a cluster randomised trial in Pakistan

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    Background: There were an estimated 7 million people living with diabetes in Pakistan in 2014, and this is predicted to reach 11.4 million by 2030. Aim: To assess if an integrated care package can achieve better control of diabetes. Design & setting: The pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial (cRCT) was conducted from December 2014–June 2016 at 14 primary healthcare facilities in Sargodha district. Opportunistic screening, diagnostic testing, and patient recording processes were introduced in both the control 'testing, treating, and recording' (TTR) arm, and the intervention 'additional case management' (ACM) arm, which also included a clinical care guide and pictorial flipbook for lifestyle education, associated clinician training, and mobile phone follow-up. Method: Clinics were randomised on a 1:1 basis (sealed envelope lottery method) and 250 patients recruited in the ACM arm and 245 in the TTR-only arm (age ≥25 years and HbA1c >7%). The primary outcome was mean change in HbA1c (%) from baseline to 9-month follow-up. Patients and staff were not blinded. Results: The primary outcome was available for n = 238/250 (95.2%) participants in the ACM arm and n = 219/245 (89.4%) participants in the TTR-only arm (all clusters). Cluster level mean outcome was -2.26 pp (95% confidence intervals [CI] = -2.99 to -1.53) for the ACM arm, and -1.44 pp (95% CI = -2.34 to -0.54) for the TTR-only arm. Cluster level mean ACM–TTR difference (covariate-unadjusted) was -0.82 pp (95% CI = -1.86 to 0.21; P = 0.11). Conclusion: The ACM intervention in public healthcare facilities did not show a statistically significant effect on HbA1c reduction compared to the control (TTR-only) arm. Future evaluation should assess changes after a longer follow-up period, and minimal care enhancement in the comparator (control) arm

    Biological activities of aerial parts of Paeonia emodi wall

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    The ethanolic extract derived from the aerial parts of Paeonia emodi was screened for various in vitro biological activities including antifungal, antibacterial, insecticidal, phytotoxic and haemagglutination activities. General toxicity (brine shrimp lethality assay) of this extract has also been assessed. The extract was found to possess excellent phytotoxicity against Lemna minor L., moderate heamagglutination activity against human erythrocytes and reasonable insecticidal activity against Bruchus pisorum. The crude extract did not display any antifungal or antibacterial activity against the fungi and bacteria used in this study. No significant general toxicity was observed with the extract at tested concentrations

    Temperature Dependence of a Sub-wavelength Compact Graphene Plasmon-Slot Modulator

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    We investigate a plasmonic electro-optic modulator with an extinction ratio exceeding 1 dB/um by engineering the optical mode to be in-plane with the graphene layer, and show how lowering the operating temperature enables steeper switching. We show how cooling Graphene enables steeping thus improving dynamic energy consumption. Further, we show that multi-layer Graphene integrated with a plasmonic slot waveguide allows for in-plane electric field components, and 3-dB device lengths as short as several hundred nanometers only. Compact modulators approaching electronic length-scales pave a way for ultra-dense photonic integrated circuits with smallest footprint

    Delivering integrated hypertension care at private health facilities in urban Pakistan: a process evaluation

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    Background: In Pakistan about 18% of all adults are affected by hypertension, and only one in eight of the prevalent cases have their hypertension controlled. As in many other low-middle income countries, a public–private partnership approach is being considered for delivering non-communicable disease care in urban areas. Aim: This process evaluation was undertaken to understand how an integrated care intervention was experienced by the care providers and patients, and to inform modifications before possible scaling. Design & setting: The mixed-methods study was conducted as part of a cluster randomised trial on integrated hypertension care at 26 private clinics. Method: The care practices were assessed by analysing the clinical records of 1138 registered patients with hypertension. Then semi-structured interviews with service providers and patients were used to understand their respective care experiences. A framework approach was applied to analyse and interpret the qualitative data. Results: District-led objective selection and context-sensitive staff training helped to get the clinics engaged in partnership working. About one-third of patients with hypertension had associated diabetes or renal compromise. The prescription of drugs is influenced by multiple non-clinical considerations of providers and patients. Many doctors allowed the use of home-based remedies as supplements to the prescribed allopathic drugs. Female patients faced more challenges in managing lifestyle changes. The intervention improved adherence to follow-up visits, but patient attrition remained a challenge. Conclusion: The integrated hypertension care intervention at private clinics is feasible, and leads to improved diagnosis and treatment in low-income country urban setting. The authors recommend continued implementation research and informed scaling of hypertension care at private clinics

    Evolution of the proton sd states in neutron-rich Ca isotopes

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    We analyze the evolution with increasing isospin asymmetry of the proton single-particle states 2s1/2 and 1d3/2 in Ca isotopes, using non-relativistic and relativistic mean field approaches. Both models give similar trends and it is shown that this evolution is sensitive to the neutron shell structure, the two states becoming more or less close depending on the neutron orbitals which are filled. In the regions where the states get closer some parametrizations predict an inversion between them. This inversion occurs near 48^{48}Ca as well as very far from stability where the two states systematically cross each other if the drip line predicted in the model is located far enough. We study in detail the modification of the two single-particle energies by using the equivalent potential in the Schroedinger-like Skyrme-Hartree-Fock equations. The role played by central, kinetic and spin-orbit contributions is discussed. We finally show that the effect of a tensor component in the effective interaction considerably favors the inversion of the two proton states in 48^{48}Ca.Comment: 7 figure
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