1,487 research outputs found

    Analysis of D+ → K-π+ e+ νe and D+ → K- π+ μ+ νμ Semileptonic Decays

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    Using a large sample (~11800 events) of D^+ into K^- pi^+ e^+ nu_e and D^+ into K^- pi^+ mu^+ nu_mu decays collected by the CLEO-c detector running at the psi(3770), we measure the helicity basis form factors free from the assumptions of spectroscopic pole dominance and provide new, accurate measurements of the absolute branching fractions for D^+ into K^- pi^+ e^+ nu_e and D^+ into K^- pi^+ mu^+ nu_mu decays. We find branching fractions which are consistent with previous world averages. Our measured helicity basis form factors are consistent with the spectroscopic pole dominance predictions for the three main helicity basis form factors describing D^+ into anti-K*0 ell^+ nu_mu decay. The ability to analyze D^+ into K^- pi^+ mu^+ nu_mu allows us to make the first non-parametric measurements of the mass-suppressed form factor. Our result is inconsistent with existing Lattice QCD calculations. Finally, we measure the form factor that controls non-resonant s-wave interference with the D^+ into anti-K*0 ell^+ nu_mu amplitude and search for evidence of possible additional non-resonant d-wave or f-wave interference with the anti-K*0

    Analysis of D+ to K- pi+ e+ nu_e and D+ to K- pi+ mu+ nu_mu Semileptonic Decays

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    Using a large sample (~11800 events) of D^+ into K^- pi^+ e^+ nu_e and D^+ into K^- pi^+ mu^+ nu_mu decays collected by the CLEO-c detector running at the psi(3770), we measure the helicity basis form factors free from the assumptions of spectroscopic pole dominance and provide new, accurate measurements of the absolute branching fractions for D^+ into K^- pi^+ e^+ nu_e and D^+ into K^- pi^+ mu^+ nu_mu decays. We find branching fractions which are consistent with previous world averages. Our measured helicity basis form factors are consistent with the spectroscopic pole dominance predictions for the three main helicity basis form factors describing D^+ into anti-K*0 ell^+ nu_mu decay. The ability to analyze D^+ into K^- pi^+ mu^+ nu_mu allows us to make the first non-parametric measurements of the mass-suppressed form factor. Our result is inconsistent with existing Lattice QCD calculations. Finally, we measure the form factor that controls non-resonant s-wave interference with the D^+ into anti-K*0 ell^+ nu_mu amplitude and search for evidence of possible additional non-resonant d-wave or f-wave interference with the anti-K*0

    Measurement of the eta_b(1S) mass and the Branching Fraction for Upsilon(3S) --\u3e gamma eta_b(1S)

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    We report evidence for the ground state of bottomonium, eta_b(1S), in the radiative decay Upsilon(3S) --\u3e gamma eta_b in e^+e^- annihilation data taken with the CLEO III detector. Using 6 million Upsilon(3S) decays, and assuming Gamma(eta_b) = 10 MeV/c^2, we obtain B(Upsilon(3S) --\u3e gamma eta_b) = (7.1 +- 1.8 +- 1.1) X 10^{-4}, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. The statistical significance is about 4 sigma. The mass is determined to be M(eta_b) = 9391.8 +- 6.6 +- 2.0 MeV/c^2, which corresponds to the hyperfine splitting Delta M_{hf}(1S)_b = 68.5 +- 6.6 +- 2.0 MeV/c^2. Using 9 million Upsilon(2S) decays, we place an upper limit on the corresponding Y(2S) decay, B(Y(2S) --\u3e gamma eta_b) \u3c 8.4 X 10^{-4} at 90 % confidence level

    Assessment of Some Habits and Practices related to Complete Denture Wearing – A Survey of Subjects Reporting to Watim Dental Hospital

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    Objective: To assess some habits and practices related to denture wearing among subjects reporting to Watim Teaching Dental Hospital, Rawalpindi. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted at Watim Dental College, Rawalpindi, from December 2018 to August 2019. Using a pre-structured questionnaire, data were collected from 155 subjects having used complete dentures for a minimum of 6-months. The questionnaire consisted of information including the type of dentures, duration and frequency of denture wearing, and denture cleaning habits. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: Out of 155 participants, 80 (51.6%) were male and 75 (48.4%) were females. 89 (57.4%) patients use toothbrushes and soap for denture cleaning. 139 (89.7%) participants didn’t wear dentures while sleeping and soaked them in water. 98 (63.2%) respondents were not using antiseptic oral rinse and were casual in mouth-cleaning. Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that 65 (41.9%) subjects were cleaning their dentures once a day. The study also reveals that 65 (41.9%) edentulous participants were not able to clean their oral cavity. Dentists should emphasize the importance of recall visits to evaluate the status of denture hygiene along with mucosal surface examination. Patient motivation to follow hygiene instructions and informing them about the harmful effects of overnight wearing of dentures should be part of delivering the prostheses to them. &nbsp

    Effect of early tranexamic acid administration on mortality, hysterectomy, and other morbidities in women with post-partum haemorrhage (WOMAN): an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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    Background Post-partum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Early administration of tranexamic acid reduces deaths due to bleeding in trauma patients. We aimed to assess the effects of early administration of tranexamic acid on death, hysterectomy, and other relevant outcomes in women with post-partum haemorrhage. Methods In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited women aged 16 years and older with a clinical diagnosis of post-partum haemorrhage after a vaginal birth or caesarean section from 193 hospitals in 21 countries. We randomly assigned women to receive either 1 g intravenous tranexamic acid or matching placebo in addition to usual care. If bleeding continued after 30 min, or stopped and restarted within 24 h of the first dose, a second dose of 1 g of tranexamic acid or placebo could be given. Patients were assigned by selection of a numbered treatment pack from a box containing eight numbered packs that were identical apart from the pack number. Participants, care givers, and those assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. We originally planned to enrol 15 000 women with a composite primary endpoint of death from all-causes or hysterectomy within 42 days of giving birth. However, during the trial it became apparent that the decision to conduct a hysterectomy was often made at the same time as randomisation. Although tranexamic acid could influence the risk of death in these cases, it could not affect the risk of hysterectomy. We therefore increased the sample size from 15 000 to 20 000 women in order to estimate the effect of tranexamic acid on the risk of death from post-partum haemorrhage. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with ISRCTN76912190 (Dec 8, 2008); ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00872469; and PACTR201007000192283. Findings Between March, 2010, and April, 2016, 20 060 women were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive tranexamic acid (n=10 051) or placebo (n=10 009), of whom 10 036 and 9985, respectively, were included in the analysis. Death due to bleeding was significantly reduced in women given tranexamic acid (155 [1·5%] of 10 036 patients vs 191 [1·9%] of 9985 in the placebo group, risk ratio [RR] 0·81, 95% CI 0·65–1·00; p=0·045), especially in women given treatment within 3 h of giving birth (89 [1·2%] in the tranexamic acid group vs 127 [1·7%] in the placebo group, RR 0·69, 95% CI 0·52–0·91; p=0·008). All other causes of death did not differ significantly by group. Hysterectomy was not reduced with tranexamic acid (358 [3·6%] patients in the tranexamic acid group vs 351 [3·5%] in the placebo group, RR 1·02, 95% CI 0·88–1·07; p=0·84). The composite primary endpoint of death from all causes or hysterectomy was not reduced with tranexamic acid (534 [5·3%] deaths or hysterectomies in the tranexamic acid group vs 546 [5·5%] in the placebo group, RR 0·97, 95% CI 0·87-1·09; p=0·65). Adverse events (including thromboembolic events) did not differ significantly in the tranexamic acid versus placebo group. Interpretation Tranexamic acid reduces death due to bleeding in women with post-partum haemorrhage with no adverse effects. When used as a treatment for postpartum haemorrhage, tranexamic acid should be given as soon as possible after bleeding onset. Funding London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Pfizer, UK Department of Health, Wellcome Trust, and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

    Documenting the Recovery of Vascular Services in European Centres Following the Initial COVID-19 Pandemic Peak: Results from a Multicentre Collaborative Study

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    Objective: To document the recovery of vascular services in Europe following the first COVID-19 pandemic peak. Methods: An online structured vascular service survey with repeated data entry between 23 March and 9 August 2020 was carried out. Unit level data were collected using repeated questionnaires addressing modifications to vascular services during the first peak (March – May 2020, “period 1”), and then again between May and June (“period 2”) and June and July 2020 (“period 3”). The duration of each period was similar. From 2 June, as reductions in cases began to be reported, centres were first asked if they were in a region still affected by rising cases, or if they had passed the peak of the first wave. These centres were asked additional questions about adaptations made to their standard pathways to permit elective surgery to resume. Results: The impact of the pandemic continued to be felt well after countries’ first peak was thought to have passed in 2020. Aneurysm screening had not returned to normal in 21.7% of centres. Carotid surgery was still offered on a case by case basis in 33.8% of centres, and only 52.9% of centres had returned to their normal aneurysm threshold for surgery. Half of centres (49.4%) believed their management of lower limb ischaemia continued to be negatively affected by the pandemic. Reduced operating theatre capacity continued in 45.5% of centres. Twenty per cent of responding centres documented a backlog of at least 20 aortic repairs. At least one negative swab and 14 days of isolation were the most common strategies used for permitting safe elective surgery to recommence. Conclusion: Centres reported a broad return of services approaching pre-pandemic “normal” by July 2020. Many introduced protocols to manage peri-operative COVID-19 risk. Backlogs in cases were reported for all major vascular surgeries

    Estimating global injuries morbidity and mortality : methods and data used in the Global Burden of Disease 2017 study

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    Background: While there is a long history of measuring death and disability from injuries, modern research methods must account for the wide spectrum of disability that can occur in an injury, and must provide estimates with sufficient demographic, geographical and temporal detail to be useful for policy makers. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study used methods to provide highly detailed estimates of global injury burden that meet these criteria. Methods: In this study, we report and discuss the methods used in GBD 2017 for injury morbidity and mortality burden estimation. In summary, these methods included estimating cause-specific mortality for every cause of injury, and then estimating incidence for every cause of injury. Non-fatal disability for each cause is then calculated based on the probabilities of suffering from different types of bodily injury experienced. Results: GBD 2017 produced morbidity and mortality estimates for 38 causes of injury. Estimates were produced in terms of incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability, cause-specific mortality, years of life lost and disability-adjusted life-years for a 28-year period for 22 age groups, 195 countries and both sexes. Conclusions: GBD 2017 demonstrated a complex and sophisticated series of analytical steps using the largest known database of morbidity and mortality data on injuries. GBD 2017 results should be used to help inform injury prevention policy making and resource allocation. We also identify important avenues for improving injury burden estimation in the future
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