22 research outputs found


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    The optimal and efficient reward management system makes possible for workers to play a positive and productive role in an organization. Considering the motivation through reward management, this study aims to explore the perception of Nepali private schools' teachers of Kathmandu district towards their rewards. This study uses the phenomenological approach to describe the common meaning for a purposeful sample of four participant teachers on their lived experiences on reward management through semi-structured interview. From the analysis of evidences, the researcher generated the six themes about the reward management perceived by the teachers. The themes are interpreted based on the Maslow's hierarchy of needs. From the perspectives of the participant teachers, the teachers necessarily believe on the financial and non-financial rewards as motivating factors. They are not motivated with the current reward management, for example, the schools provide on time-base rather than performance-base. Despite the teachers' demotivation, they expect positive changes in their schools in future. Article visualizations

    Soil Chemical Properties Under Conservation Agriculture and Cereal-Based Cropping System in Eastern Tarai of Nepal

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    Field experiments were conducted for four years (2014-2017) at five locations namely Salbani, Bhokraha, Simariya, Bhaluwa and Kaptanganj of Sunsari district to assess the changes in soil chemical properties under conservation agriculture (CA)-based practices in two cropping systems namely rice-kidney bean-maize at Salbani and rice-wheat at rest of the locations. In rice-wheat cropping system, there were four treatments: (1) conventional tillage (CT) for rice transplantation and subsequent wheat sowing, (2) conventional tillage rice transplantation followed by zero tillage (ZT) wheat, (3) unpuddled rice transplantation followed by zero tillage wheat, (4) zero tillage in both rice and wheat. Similarly, in rice-kidney bean-maize cropping system, there were four treatments; (1) conventional tillage for rice transplantation and sowing of both kidney bean and maize, (2) conventional tillage rice transplantation followed by zero tillage in both kidney bean and maize, (3) unpuddled rice transplantation followed by zero tillage in both kidney bean and maize, (4) zero tillage in all three crops. Soil samples were taken at initial and every year after rice harvest.The soil samples were analyzed for total nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, pH and soil organic matter.Total nitrogen (N) showed a slightly decreasing trend in the first three years and showed a slight increase at the end of experiment under ZT in all locations. The total N under ZT changed from 0.12 to 0.13%, 0.05 to 0.06%, 0.10 to 0.12%, 0.11 to 0.08% and 0.09 to 0.13% in Salbani, Bhokraha, Simariya, Bhaluwa and Kaptanganj, respectively.  All locations showed the positive values of available potassium; Salbani  revealing considerable change of 64.3 to 78.5 mg/kg in CT while 68.4 to 73.3 mg/kg in ZT condition. The treatment where rice was transplanted in unpuddled condition and zero tilled to wheat, had a mean value of available phosphorus and potassium as 87.3 and 81.9 mg/kg respectively. Soil pH ranged from 4.8 to 7.1 in CT while it was 5.2 to 6.8 in ZT across the locations. The change in soil organic matter in CT of all locations except Salbani was narrower as compared to ZT

    Morpho-physiological and biochemical response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to drought stress: A review

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    Global food shortages are caused mainly by drought, the primary driver of yield loss in agriculture worldwide. Drought stress negatively impacts the physiological and morphological characteristics of rice (Oryza sativa L.), limiting the plant productivity and hence the economy of global rice production. Physiological changes due to drought stress in rice include constrained cell division and elongation, stomatal closure, loss of turgor adjustment, reduced photosynthesis, and lower yields. Morphological changes include inhibition of seed germination, reduced tillers, early maturity, and reduced biomass. In addition, drought stress leads to a metabolic alteration by increasing the buildup of reactive oxygen species, reactive stress metabolites, antioxidative enzymes, and abscisic acid. Rice tends to combat drought through three major phenomena; tolerance, avoidance, and escape. Several mitigation techniques are introduced and adapted to combat drought stress which includes choosing drought-tolerant cultivars, planting early types, maintaining adequate moisture levels, conventional breeding, molecular maintenance, and creating variants with high-yielding characteristics. This review attempts to evaluate the various morpho-physiological responses of the rice plant to drought, along with drought stress reduction techniques

    The Health Consequences of Urbanization in Nepal: Perspectives from a Participatory Photo Project with Recent Rural-Urban Migrants

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    What new challenges to health do recent rural-to-urban migrants in Nepal face? How do newly urbanized individuals navigate and seek healthcare in the city? This photo essay offers a glimpse of the answers to these questions from the perspective of newly urbanized people living in Kirtipur and Pokhara, two rapidly growing urban areas in Nepal. It draws on a nine-month participatory study which used participatory photography, amongst other methods, to better understand the health opportunities and risks faced by new rural-urban migrants. All photographs presented in this essay were taken and selected by research participants and are accompanied by their narrations of what these images represent to them. Consequently, this essay provides insights into how the newly urbanized themselves understand threats to their health, and how they understand the urban health system they are confronted with as service users

    Andragogy: Process and Context Based (PCB) Model for Adult Learners

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    The literature reports that andragogy is methods of teaching for adult learning that basically differs from pedagogy in terms of learning, focus, power and control, learning, learning design, development. The andragogical models focus on the process rather than content, and the process concerns with how the procedures and resources help the learners. However, they have focused less on the role of environment (context) in the implementation of the models where the context includes several factors such as enabling, empowering and engaging. This paper has described a blended model that might be implied in higher education institutions. The proposed model called Process and Context based (PCB) model for adult learners, includes both process and context. Experience, action and reflections are the primary elements of the process whereas enabling, engaging and empowering are the components of a conducive environment for a learning organization. Keywords: Andragogy, Adult Learners, Learning, Experience, Environment DOI: 10.7176/JAAS/63-04 Publication date: April 30th 202

    Learner-Centered Instruction: Teachers’ Practice in Online Class of Mathematics During Covid-19 Pandemic in Nepal

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    Learner-centered instruction is very important concept in virtual and face-to-face classes for enhancing academic performance of students. This research aims to study the status of learner-centered instructions followed by the teachers in online classes during the pandemic and its effectiveness on the mathematics achievement of the learners. The cross-sectional survey design was used by taking 2273 students by convenient sampling from basic to university level of Nepal. The t-test, ANOVA, correlation, and regression techniques were used to analyze the data. The finding of the study indicates that the learning-centered role of teachers was found to be high in mathematics teaching during the pandemic situation in Nepal however teachers are not habituated to give extra time in learning difficulties whereas the problem solving and creative role of teachers were found better as compared to other. Types of the institutions, teaching level, access to the internet, and having tablet are the determinants for the learner-centered instruction in teaching whereas availability of laptop and computer, types of institutions, and access to the internet have significant roles to determine the mathematics achievement. The findings of this research suggest that practice of learner-centered instruction would be useful and beneficial for the learners in online classes

    Learners’ Expectations towards Virtual Learning and its Effect on Mathematics Performance

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    The demands for virtual learning have exponentially increased because of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the research was to explore learners’ expectations towards virtual learning and its effect on mathematics achievement. A total of 2,350 students from basic to university levels in Nepal participated in the cross-sectional survey. T-test, ANOVA, and SEM were employed for data analysis. The findings indicate that the expectation of learners towards virtual learning from the government, educational institutions, teachers, and parents found to be significantly high. Parents’ level of education, gender, and the types of educational institutions are key predictors of the expectation of learners. Expectations of learners towards virtual learning from government, institutions, and parents have negative and expectations from teachers have a positive effect on mathematics performance

    Theoretical framework of learner engagement in terms of social, behavioral, cognitive and emotional engagement (black arrow represents the domain of research and blue arrow represents the support connection of theories).

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    Theoretical framework of learner engagement in terms of social, behavioral, cognitive and emotional engagement (black arrow represents the domain of research and blue arrow represents the support connection of theories).</p

    Effect of behavioral, emotional and social engagement on cognitive engagement (Model 3).

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    Effect of behavioral, emotional and social engagement on cognitive engagement (Model 3).</p

    S1 Appendix -

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