46 research outputs found

    A chemoselective and continuous synthesis of m-sulfamoylbenzamide analogues

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    For the synthesis of m-sulfamoylbenzamide analogues, small molecules which are known for their bioactivity, a chemoselective procedure has been developed starting from m-(chlorosulfonyl) benzoyl chloride. Although a chemoselective process in batch was already reported, a continuous-flow process reveals an increased selectivity at higher temperatures and without catalysts. In total, 15 analogues were synthesized, using similar conditions, with yields ranging between 65 and 99%. This is the first automated and chemoselective synthesis of m- sulfamoylbenzamide analogues

    The ROS wheel: refining ROS transcriptional footprints

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    In the last decade, microarray studies have delivered extensive inventories of transcriptome-wide changes in messenger RNA levels provoked by various types of oxidative stress in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Previous cross-study comparisons indicated how different types of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their subcellular accumulation sites are able to reshape the transcriptome in specific manners. However, these analyses often employed simplistic statistical frameworks that are not compatible with large-scale analyses. Here, we reanalyzed a total of 79 Affymetrix ATH1 microarray studies of redox homeostasis perturbation experiments. To create hierarchy in such a high number of transcriptomic data sets, all transcriptional profiles were clustered on the overlap extent of their differentially expressed transcripts. Subsequently, meta-analysis determined a single magnitude of differential expression across studies and identified common transcriptional footprints per cluster. The resulting transcriptional footprints revealed the regulation of various metabolic pathways and gene families. The RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG F-mediated respiratory burst had a major impact and was a converging point among several studies. Conversely, the timing of the oxidative stress response was a determining factor in shaping different transcriptome footprints. Our study emphasizes the need to interpret transcriptomic data sets in a systematic context, where initial, specific stress triggers can converge to common, aspecific transcriptional changes. We believe that these refined transcriptional footprints provide a valuable resource for assessing the involvement of ROS in biological processes in plants

    Integrated Proteomic and Metabolomic Profiling of Phytophthora cinnamomi Attack on Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa) Reveals Distinct Molecular Reprogramming Proximal to the Infection Site and Away from It

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    Phytophthora cinnamomi is one of the most invasive tree pathogens that devastates wild and cultivated forests. Due to its wide host range, knowledge of the infection process at the molecular level is lacking for most of its tree hosts. To expand the repertoire of studied Phytophthora-woody plant interactions and identify molecular mechanisms that can facilitate discovery of novel ways to control its spread and damaging effects, we focused on the interaction between P. cinnamomi and sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa), an economically important tree for the wood processing industry. By using a combination of proteomics, metabolomics, and targeted hormonal analysis, we mapped the effects of P. cinnamomi attack on stem tissues immediately bordering the infection site and away from it. P. cinnamomi led to a massive reprogramming of the chestnut proteome and accumulation of the stress-related hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA), indicating that stem inoculation can be used as an easily accessible model system to identify novel molecular players in P. cinnamomi pathogenicity.O

    Molecular priming as an approach to induce tolerance against abiotic and oxidative stresses in crop plants

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    Abiotic stresses, including drought, salinity, extreme temperature, and pollutants, are the main cause of crop losses worldwide. Novel climate-adapted crops and stress tolerance-enhancing compounds are needed increasingly to counteract the negative effects of unfavorable stressful environments. A number of natural products and synthetic chemicals can protect model and crop plants against abiotic stresses through the ectopic induction of molecular and physiological defense mechanisms, a process known as molecular priming. In addition to their stress-protective effect, some of these compounds can also stimulate plant growth. Here, we provide an overview of the known physiological and molecular mechanisms behind the compounds that induce molecular priming, together with a survey of approaches to discover and functionally study new stress-alleviating chemicals

    Chemical genetics approach identifies abnormal inflorescence meristem 1 as a putative target of a novel sulfonamide that protects catalase2-deficient Arabidopsis against photorespiratory stress

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    Alterations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels have a profound impact on numerous signaling cascades orchestrating plant growth, development, and stress signaling, including programmed cell death. To expand the repertoire of known molecular mechanisms implicated in H2O2 signaling, we performed a forward chemical screen to identify small molecules that could alleviate the photorespiratory-induced cell death phenotype of Arabidopsisthaliana mutants lacking H2O2-scavenging capacity by peroxisomal catalase2. Here, we report the characterization of pakerine, an m-sulfamoyl benzamide from the sulfonamide family. Pakerine alleviates the cell death phenotype of cat2 mutants exposed to photorespiration-promoting conditions and delays dark-induced senescence in wild-type Arabidopsis leaves. By using a combination of transcriptomics, metabolomics, and affinity purification, we identified abnormal inflorescence meristem 1 (AIM1) as a putative protein target of pakerine. AIM1 is a 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase involved in fatty acid ő≤-oxidation that contributes to jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis. Whereas intact JA biosynthesis was not required for pakerine bioactivity, our results point toward a role for ő≤-oxidation-dependent SA production in the execution of H2O2-mediated cell death

    Physiological basis of chilling tolerance and early-season growth in miscanthus

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    Background and Aims: The high productivity of Miscanthus x giganteus has been at least partly ascribed to its high chilling tolerance compared with related C-4 crops, allowing for a longer productive growing season in temperate climates. However, the chilling tolerance of M. x giganteus has been predominantly studied under controlled environmental conditions. The understanding of the underlying mechanisms contributing to chilling tolerance in the field and their variation in different miscanthus genotypes is largely unexplored. Methods: Five miscanthus genotypes with different sensitivities to chilling were grown in the field and scored for a comprehensive set of physiological traits throughout the spring season. Chlorophyll fluorescence was measured as an indication of photosynthesis, and leaf samples were analysed for biochemical traits related to photosynthetic activity (chlorophyll content and pyruvate, Pi dikinase activity), redox homeostasis (malondialdehyde, glutathione and ascorbate contents, and catalase activity) and water-soluble carbohydrate content. Key Results: Chilling-tolerant genotypes were characterized by higher levels of malondialdehyde, raffinose and sucrose, and higher catalase activity, while the chilling-sensitive genotypes were characterized by higher concentrations of glucose and fructose, and higher pyruvate, Pi dikinase activity later in the growing season. On the early sampling dates, the biochemical responses of M. x giganteus were similar to those of the chilling-tolerant genotypes, but later in the season they became more similar to those of the chilling-sensitive genotypes. Conclusions: The overall physiological response of chilling-tolerant genotypes was distinguishable from that of chilling-sensitive genotypes, while M. x giganteus was intermediate between the two. There appears to be a trade-off between high and efficient photosynthesis and chilling stress tolerance. Miscanthus x giganteus is able to overcome this trade-off and, while it is more similar to the chilling-sensitive genotypes in early spring, its photosynthetic capacity is similar to that of the chilling-tolerant genotypes later on

    Lack of GLYCOLATE OXIDASE1, but Not GLYCOLATE OXIDASE2, Attenuates the Photorespiratory Phenotype of CATALASE2-Deficient Arabidopsis

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    The genes coding for the core metabolic enzymes of the photorespiratory pathway that allows plants with C3-type photosynthesis to survive in an oxygen-rich atmosphere, have been largely discovered in genetic screens aimed to isolate mutants that are unviable under ambient air. As an exception, glycolate oxidase (GOX) mutants with a photorespiratory phenotype have not been described yet in C3 species. Using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants lacking the peroxisomal CATALASE2 (cat2-2) that display stunted growth and cell death lesions under ambient air, we isolated a second-site loss-of-function mutation in GLYCOLATE OXIDASE1 (GOX1) that attenuated the photorespiratory phenotype of cat2-2. Interestingly, knocking out the nearly identical GOX2 in the cat2-2 background did not affect the photorespiratory phenotype, indicating that GOX1 and GOX2 play distinct metabolic roles. We further investigated their individual functions in single gox1-1 and gox2-1 mutants and revealed that their phenotypes can be modulated by environmental conditions that increase the metabolic flux through the photorespiratory pathway. High light negatively affected the photosynthetic performance and growth of both gox1-1 and gox2-1 mutants, but the negative consequences of severe photorespiration were more pronounced in the absence of GOX1, which was accompanied with lesser ability to process glycolate. Taken together, our results point toward divergent functions of the two photorespiratory GOX isoforms in Arabidopsis and contribute to a better understanding of the photorespiratory pathway.Peer reviewe

    Local and systemic responses to Myzus persicae in Arabidopsis. A role for redox components

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    The mechanisms that enable plants to perceive and respond to aphids remain poorly characterised, particularly with respect to systemic signalling pathways. The aim of the studies reported in this thesis was to characterise the local and systemic signalling pathways induced by Myzus persicae infestation of Arabidopsis thaliana with translational aspects to potato (Solanum tuberosum). Particular emphasis was placed on the role of redox signalling pathways, which were studied in wild type A. thaliana (Col0) and in mutants that were deficient either in the major low molecular weight antioxidant ascorbic acid vitamin C defective 2 (vtc2) or in the abscisic acid (ABA) Insensitive-4 (ABI4) transcription factor or both components. Transcriptome analysis and metabolite profiling of leaves infested by M. persicae and on leaves from the same rosettes that were remote from the site of aphid attack revealed that the plant responses to aphids involved rapid local and systemic transcriptome re-programming in the absence of marked changes in the metabolite profiles. Moreover, the transcriptome reprogramming observed in infested leaves was different from the systemic response. The aphid-induced transcriptome signature of the infested leaves bore strong hallmarks of redox-signalling, salicylic acid (SA) signalling and ABA signalling, while that of the systemic leaves revealed a transcript profile where redox signalling was present but SA signalling was decreased. The vtc2 mutant showed decreased aphid fecundity, while aphid numbers were increased on the abi4 mutants. The differences in resistance to aphids between these genotypes are linked to alterations in ABA-dependent jasmonate-signalling pathways. When potato leaves were enriched in asorbate aphid fecundity was increased. These findings demonstrate the central role of redox signalling pathways in plant responses to aphids. Further characterisation of genes crucial for maintenance of redox homeostasis following aphid attack will inevitably facilitate development of aphid-resistant crops through GM technologies and marker-assisted selection
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