13,107 research outputs found

    Reproductive management in pigs: emphasis on the different roles of the boar and on optimal insemination management

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    Boars have different roles in the reproductive management in pigs. Boar contact can stimulate follicle development and thereby induce oestrus, both in gilts and sows. Boar contact during oestrus is essential for good oestrus expression, which is essential for the correct timing of insemination and the proper use of boar contact during insemination can stimulate sperm transport and thereby fertilisation. Stimulation by boars clearly has an olfactory component (the boar smell), but can also have an auditory, visual and evn tactile component. The background of the different roles and some of these different components of the boar are discussed. To enable a good farrowing rate and litter size, sows should be inseminated between 0 and 24h before ovulation. However, it is not possible to accurately predict the time of ovulation in sows. Although ovulation takes place at a relatively fixed 60-75% of the duration of oestrus, the duration of oestrus varies considerably between sows and between farms, resulting in a variable ovulation time from onset of oestrus. Therefore, most farmers inseminate their sows every day of oestrus to ensure insemination within the optimal period. Since post-ovulation inseminations should be avoided, it is adviced to only inseminate sows while they still show an optimal standing respons

    Laser-heated thruster

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    The development of a computer program for the design of the thrust chamber for a CW laser heated thruster was examined. Hydrodgen was employed as the propellant gas and high temperature absorber. The laser absorption coefficient of the mixture/laser radiation combination is given in temperature and species densities. Radiative and absorptive properties are given to determine radiation from such gas mixtures. A computer code for calculating the axisymmetric channel flow of a gas mixture in chemical equilibrium, and laser energy absorption and convective and radiative heating is described. It is concluded that: (1) small amounts of cesium seed substantially increase the absorption coefficient of hydrogen; (2) cesium is a strong radiator and contributes greatly to radiation of cesium seeded hydrogen; (3) water vapor is a poor absorber; and (4) for 5.3mcm radiation, both H2O/CO and NO/CO seeded hydrogen mixtures are good absorbers

    Access to telecommunications networks

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    telecommunication;telecommunication industry;networks;access to market;policy;allocation;microeconomics

    Is there a universality of the helix-coil transition in protein models?

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    The similarity in the thermodynamic properties of two completely different theoretical models for the helix-coil transition is examined critically. The first model is an all-atomic representation for a poly-alanine chain, while the second model is a minimal helix-forming model that contains no system specifics. Key characteristics of the helix-coil transition, in particular, the effective critical exponents of these two models agree with each other, within a finite-size scaling analysis.Comment: Latex, to appear in Eur. Phys. J.

    Estimations of the Distances of Stellar Collapses in the Galaxy by Analyzing the Energy Spectrum of Neutrino Bursts

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    The neutrino telescopes of the present generation, depending on their specific features, can reconstruct the neutrino spectra from a galactic burst. Since the optical counterpart could be not available, it is desirable to have at hand alternative methods to estimate the distance of the supernova explosion using only the neutrino data. In this work we present preliminary results on the method we are proposing to estimate the distance from a galactic supernova based only on the spectral shape of the neutrino burst and assumptions on the gravitational binding energy released an a typical supernova explosion due to stellar collapses.Comment: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Strong Electromagnetic Fields and Neutron Stars (SMFNS 2011) Instituto de Cibern\'etica, Matem\'atica y F\'isica (ICIMAF) Sociedad Cubana de F\'isica (SCF) Varadero, Cuba, 5-7 May 201

    Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: The effects of montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist

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    Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is very common in both patients with asthma and those who are otherwise thought to be normal. The intensity of exercise as well as the type of exercise is important in producing symptoms. This may make some types of exercise such as swimming more suitable and extended running more difficult for patients with this condition. A better understanding of EIB will allow the physician to direct the patient towards a type of exercise and medications that can result in a more active lifestyle without the same concern for resulting symptoms. This is especially important for schoolchildren who are usually enrolled in physical education classes and elite athletes who may desire to participate in competitive sports. Fortunately several medications (short- and long-acting β2-agonists, cromolyn, nedocromil, inhaled corticosteroids, and more recently leukotriene modifiers) have been shown to be effective in preventing or attenuating the effects of exercise in many patients. In addition, inhaled β2-agonists have been shown to quickly reverse the airway obstruction that develops in patients and continue to be the reliever medications of choice. Inhaled corticosteroids are increasingly being recommended as regular therapy now that the role of inflammation and airway injury has been identified in EIB. With the discovery that there is a release of mediators such as histamine and leukotrienes from cells in the airway following exercise with resulting airway obstruction in susceptible individuals, interest has turned to attenuating their effects with mediator antagonists especially those that block the effects of leukotrienes. Studies with an oral leukotriene antagonist, montelukast, have shown beneficial effects in adults and children aged as young as 6 years with EIB. These effects can be demonstrated as soon as two hours and as long as 24 hours after administration without a demonstrated loss of a protective effect after months of treatment. The studies leading up to and resulting in an approval of montelukast for EIB for patients aged 15 years and older are reviewed in this paper