374 research outputs found

    A randomised controlled trial evaluating the Guide Cymru mental health literacy intervention programme in year 9 (age 13–14) school pupils in Wales

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    Background: Adolescent mental health has become a public health concern as 10-20% of adolescents have experiences with mental health problems. Improving mental health education is critical to reducing stigma and improving access to appropriate care when needed. Here we examine the impact of a mental health literacy programme (Guide Cymru) in young adolescents in the UK. A randomised controlled trial assessed the effectiveness of the Guide Cymru intervention. Method: A total of 1,926 pupils (860 males and 1066 females) aged 13-14 (year 9) took part in the study. The secondary schools were randomised into the active and control arms of the study. Teachers in the active arm of the study were trained on the Guide Cymru and then delivered the intervention to their pupils. Pupils in the active groups received six modules of mental health literacy (the Guide Cymru), and control schools received teaching as usual. Mental health literacy across several domains (e.g., knowledge, stigma, help-seeking intentions) were assessed both before and after the intervention. Data collection for the randomised controlled trial ran from September 2019 to March 2020. Multi-level modelling analysis was conducted to account for the clustered nature of the design. Results: All aspects of mental health literacy, including mental health knowledge (g = 0.32), good mental health behaviours (g = 0.22), mental health stigmas (g = 0.16), intentions to seek help (g = 0.15), and avoidant coping (g = 0.14) improved after completing the Guide Cymru programme (ps < .001). Discussion: The current study presents evidence for the Guide Cymru's effectiveness in improving secondary school pupils' mental health literacy. We demonstrate that providing teachers with appropriate resources and training to deliver the Guide Cymru programme within their classrooms can improve the mental health literacy of pupils. These findings have important implications for the beneficial impacts the secondary school system can have on reducing the burden of mental health problems at a critical point in a young person's life

    Outdoor provision for babies and toddlers: Exploring the practice/policy/research nexus in English ECEC settings

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    A wealth of research evidences the positive impact of the outdoors for young children. Yet there is little relating to the experiences of babies and toddlers who attend daycare settings. This paper offers new knowledge about outdoor provision for under twos in the English context where there is a lack of explicit policy support for outdoor practice. Findings, captured through an online survey from Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) settings in one geographically diverse county, reveal a generally positive picture. This suggests that practice is ahead of research. However, the survey also highlights significant variability in outdoor provision. We suggest that, in the absence of a strong policy driver ECEC settings may be inadvertently laying the foundations for inequality of access to the outdoors. Furthermore, a lack of research evidence to inform practice may be contributing to an underdevelopment of the pedagogic value of outdoor environments

    A life "in and with nature?" Developing nature engaging and nature enhancing pedagogies for babies and toddlers

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    The holistic relationship between children and nature is at the heart of Froebel’s philosophy and practice: he took for granted that young children would grow up “in” and “with” nature.  This paper explores the contemporary relevance of this thinking to babies and toddlers in early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings. It is based on a research project funded by the Froebel Trust which explores outdoor provision in English settings.  Our findings suggest that whilst the pedagogic potential of the outdoors for babies and toddlers appears to be generally recognized, there is little emphasis on supporting them to engage with the natural characteristics of the outdoor environment.  Concerns about safety and an emphasis on physical activity mean that natural elements may be discouraged in favor of manufactured alternatives such as artificial grass or commercially produced resources. We argue that Froebelian philosophy offers a much-needed theoretical lens that can illuminate the limitations of such practices for both the human and non-human world.  Importantly, we highlight the interconnectedness of human and environmental health and suggest the need to develop nature engaging and nature enhancing pedagogies from birth. 

    Civic Empowerment through Digitalisation:The Case of Greenlandic Women

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    Talk About Self Harm (TASH): participatory action research with young people, GPs and practice nurses to explore how the experiences of young people who self-harm could be improved in GP surgeries

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    Background: The incidence of self-harm in young people in primary care is increasing dramatically and many young people who self-harm visit their GP surgery as a first point of contact for help. Aim: To explore with young people, GPs and Practice Nurses; 1) why young people present with self-harm to primary care and 2) whether young people, GPs and Practice Nurses can take steps to have more helpful consultations about self-harm in GP surgeries that include self-help materials developed by young people being used to support such consultations to take place. Design and setting: Participatory action research with GPs, Practice Nurses and young people employed mixed methods to collect statistical and narrative data.Methods: Statistics from 285 young people’s medical records were captured including more detailed analyses of a random sample of 75 of these records. A series of 24 focus groups with a total of 45 GPs, Practice Nurses and Young People, with an average number of 8 participants in each group were conducted. Statistical data was subject to descriptive and inferential analyses and thematic analysis was applied to the transcripts from the focus groups. Results and conclusion: The type of self-harm young people presented with influenced whether they would see a GP or Practice Nurse. While self-help materials were welcomed and deemed helpful, young people, GPs and Practice Nurses were ambivalent about using these in short consultations where time was an overriding constraint. More research is needed on the feasibility of adopting self-help assisted interventions in GP surgeries

    The Mechanism of Translational Repression by Iron Regulatory Protein

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    The regulation of the intracellular iron storage protein ferritin is a cytoplasmic mechanism of gene regulation. Translation of ferritin mRNA is regulated by iron via mRNA-protein interactions between iron- responsive elements (IREs) and iron regulatory protein (IRP). In iron-depleted cells, IRP binds to single IREs located in the 5' untranslated region of ferritin mRNA and represses translation. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the mechanism of IRP-mediated translational control of IRE-containing mRNAs. To this end, cell-free translation systems were established in wheat germ extract and rabbit reticulocyte lysate which reconstitute IRE/IRP-mediated control. In these, cellular ferritin mRNA was specifically repressed in the presence of IRP, the IRE element was shown to be necessary and sufficient to mediate this repression, and an IRE with a single nucleotide deletion was not functional. However, the IRE element was shown not to efficiently repress translation when located in a cap-distal position. IRE/IRP-mediated regulation was determined to occur at the level of translation and not as a consequence of changes in mRNA stability. IRE/IRP-mediated regulation in vitro was found not to require a polyadenylated mRNA, suggesting that regulation in cells is not mediated by changes in poly (A) tail length. Recombinant IRP was found to be functionally equivalent to placental or reticulocyte IRP, and IRP was determined to be the only mammalian cell-specific protein required for regulation. The molecular mechanism underlying this translational repression was investigated in the cell-free systems by sucrose gradient analysis of complexes between IRE-containing mRNAs and ribosomal subunits and the IRE/IRP complex was shown to prevent the association of the 43S pre-initiation complex (including the small ribosomal subunit) with the mRNA. In addition, the formation of IRE/IRP complexes on the mRNA was found not to be sufficient in itself to block 43S access, but required the IRE to be located close to the cap structure, providing an explanation for the previously observed "position effect". Evaluation of other newly identified mRNAs containing putative IREs using these cell- free systems provided evidence that erythroid 5-aminolevulinate synthase (eALAS) and mitochondrial aconitase mRNA are also regulated by the same IRP-mediated mechanism. Furthermore, an unrelated mRNA/protein complex formed between the spliceosomal U1A protein and an indicator mRNA containing the U1A binding site, which had previously been implicated in steric repression of translation, was also shown to inhibit 43S association when located in a cap-proximal position. Based on the ability of cap-proximal U1A mRNA/U1A and IRE/IRP complexes to block the binding of the 43S complex to their respective mRNAs, it is suggested that both RNA/protein complexes inhibit translation by steric interference with the binding of the 43S pre-initiation complex. This work thus reveals that the cap-proximal region of eukaryotic mRNAs represents a sensitive target for translational repressor proteins to block the initiation of translation and raises the possibility that this may represent a more general mechanism of translational control

    Organic-Conventional Dairy Systems Trial in New Zealand: Four Years’ Results

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    The Organic-Conventional Comparative Dairy Systems trial at Massey University began in August 2001, and the organic farmlet achieved certification in August 2003. The trial is unique because it is the only comparative grassland-based open grazing dairy study in the world. The organic and conventional systems are managed individually according to best practice, and both are intensively monitored for production, animal health, and environmental impacts. The systems remained similar for the first two years, but began to diverge in the third and fourth years. Production has been 10-20% lower on the organic farm, but environmental impacts appear to be less than on the conventional unit, and net incomes would be similar given a 20% price premium for the organic product. Animal health issues have been manageable on the organic farmlet, and not too dissimilar from the conventional farmlet. Full results after four years of the trial will be available and presented at the conference
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