34 research outputs found

    Metapopulation dominance and genomic-island acquisition of Bradyrhizobium with superior catabolic capabilities

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    Root nodule-forming rhizobia exhibit a bipartite lifestyle, replicating in soil and also within plant cells where they fix nitrogen for legume hosts. Host control models posit that legume hosts act as a predominant selective force on rhizobia, but few studies have examined rhizobial fitness in natural populations. Here, we genotyped and phenotyped Bradyrhizobium isolates across more than 800 km of the native Acmispon strigosus host range. We sequenced chromosomal genes expressed under free-living conditions and accessory symbiosis loci expressed in planta and encoded on an integrated ‘symbiosis island’ (SI). We uncovered a massive clonal expansion restricted to the Bradyrhizobium chromosome, with a single chromosomal haplotype dominating populations, ranging more than 700 km, and acquiring 42 divergent SI haplotypes, none of which were spatially widespread. For focal genotypes, we quantified utilization of 190 sole-carbon sources relevant to soil fitness. Chromosomal haplotypes that were both widespread and dominant exhibited superior growth on diverse carbon sources, whereas these patterns were not mirrored among SI haplotypes. Abundance, spatial range and catabolic superiority of chromosomal, but not symbiosis genotypes suggests that fitness in the soil environment, rather than symbiosis with hosts, might be the key driver of Bradyrhizobium dominance

    Metapopulation dominance and genomic-island acquisition of Bradyrhizobium with superior catabolic capabilities

    Get PDF
    Root nodule-forming rhizobia exhibit a bipartite lifestyle, replicating in soil and also within plant cells where they fix nitrogen for legume hosts. Host control models posit that legume hosts act as a predominant selective force on rhizobia, but few studies have examined rhizobial fitness in natural populations. Here, we genotyped and phenotyped Bradyrhizobium isolates across more than 800 km of the native Acmispon strigosus host range. We sequenced chromosomal genes expressed under free-living conditions and accessory symbiosis loci expressed in planta and encoded on an integrated ‘symbiosis island’ (SI). We uncovered a massive clonal expansion restricted to the Bradyrhizobium chromosome, with a single chromosomal haplotype dominating populations, ranging more than 700 km, and acquiring 42 divergent SI haplotypes, none of which were spatially widespread. For focal genotypes, we quantified utilization of 190 sole-carbon sources relevant to soil fitness. Chromosomal haplotypes that were both widespread and dominant exhibited superior growth on diverse carbon sources, whereas these patterns were not mirrored among SI haplotypes. Abundance, spatial range and catabolic superiority of chromosomal, but not symbiosis genotypes suggests that fitness in the soil environment, rather than symbiosis with hosts, might be the key driver of Bradyrhizobium dominance

    Ca. Nitrososphaera and Bradyrhizobium are inversely correlated and related to agricultural practices in long-term field experiments

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    Agricultural land management, such as fertilization, liming, and tillage affects soil properties, including pH, organic matter content, nitrification rates, and the microbial community. Three different study sites were used to identify microorganisms that correlate with agricultural land use and to determine which factors regulate the relative abundance of the microbial signatures of the agricultural land-use. The three sites included in this study are the Broadbalk Experiment at Rothamsted Research, UK, the Everglades Agricultural Area, Florida, USA, and the Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan, USA. The effects of agricultural management on the abundance and diversity of bacteria and archaea were determined using high throughput, barcoded 16S rRNA sequencing. In addition, the relative abundance of these organisms was correlated with soil features. Two groups of microorganisms involved in nitrogen cycle were highly correlated with land use at all three sites. The ammonia oxidizing-archaea, dominated by Ca. Nitrososphaera, were positively correlated with agriculture while a ubiquitous group of soil bacteria closely related to the diazotrophic symbiont, Bradyrhizobium, was negatively correlated with agricultural management. Analysis of successional plots showed that the abundance of ammonia oxidizing-archaea declined and the abundance of bradyrhizobia increased with time away from agriculture. This observation suggests that the effect of agriculture on the relative abundance of these genera is reversible. Soil pH and NH(3) concentrations were positively correlated with archaeal abundance but negatively correlated with the abundance of Bradyrhizobium. The high correlations of Ca. Nitrososphaera and Bradyrhizobium abundances with agricultural management at three long-term experiments with different edaphoclimatic conditions allowed us to suggest these two genera as signature microorganisms for agricultural land use
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