3,117 research outputs found

    Open Season Declared on Automobile Searches

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    The association of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with socioeconomic disadvantage: alternative explanations and evidence

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    addresses: ESRC Centre for Genomics in Society (Egenis) & Institute of Health Research, University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter, UK.OnlineOpen Article. This is a copy of an article published in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. This journal is available online at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1469-7610Studies throughout Northern Europe, the United States and Australia have found an association between childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and family socioeconomic disadvantage. We report further evidence for the association and review potential causal pathways that might explain the link.ESRC’s Secondary Data Analysis InitiativeNational Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) for the South West Peninsul

    Achieving change in the NHS: a feasibility study to introduce a home-based cancer chemotherapy service

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    A major focus of current health policyin the United Kingdom is the development of services that meet the public’s expectations. To achieve this there is a need to evaluate current provision to ensure that the best use is made of finite resources. The studyreported here adopted an interview approach to examine an existing outpatient chemotherapy service, and to consider the feasibilityof introducing a home based model. Following a review of literature on this topic data were obtained from in-depth interviews with patients and professionals regarding the present service. These were then combined with an analysis of service contracts and financial estimates. The poor quality of much of the costrelated information limited the conclusions which could be drawn, and emphasised the need for access to more accessible and robust financial information upon which to base change. The studyalso illustrated the benefits of feasibility studies; especially when cost-effectiveness and patient satisfaction are the driving forces behind proposed changes to clinical services

    Development of an efficient glucosinolate extraction method

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    Background: Glucosinolates, anionic sulfur rich secondary metabolites, have been extensively studied because of their occurrence in the agriculturally important brassicaceae and their impact on human and animal health. There is also increasing interest in the biofumigant properties of toxic glucosinolate hydrolysis products as a method to control agricultural pests. Evaluating biofumigation potential requires rapid and accurate quantification of glucosinolates, but current commonly used methods of extraction prior to analysis involve a number of time consuming and hazardous steps; this study aimed to develop an improved method for glucosinolate extraction. Results: Three methods previously used to extract glucosinolates from brassicaceae tissues, namely extraction in cold methanol, extraction in boiling methanol, and extraction in boiling water were compared across tissue type (root, stem leaf ) and four brassicaceae species (B. juncea, S. alba, R. sativus, and E. sativa). Cold methanol extraction was shown to perform as well or better than all other tested methods for extraction of glucosinolates with the exception of glucoraphasatin in R. sativus shoots. It was also demonstrated that lyophilisation methods, routinely used during extraction to allow tissue disruption, can reduce final glucosinolate concentrations and that extracting from frozen wet tissue samples in cold 80% methanol is more effective. Conclusions: We present a simplified method for extracting glucosinolates from plant tissues which does not require the use of a freeze drier or boiling methanol, and is therefore less hazardous, and more time and cost effective. The presented method has been shown to have comparable or improved glucosinolate extraction efficiency relative to the commonly used ISO method for major glucosinolates in the Brassicaceae species studied: sinigrin and gluconasturtiin in B. juncea; sinalbin, glucotropaeolin, and gluconasturtiin in S. alba; glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin in R. sativus; and glucosatavin, glucoerucin and glucoraphanin in E. sativa

    New developments in canine hepatozoonosis in North America: a review

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    Canine hepatozoonosis is caused by Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum, apicomplexan parasites transmitted to dogs by ingestion of infectious stages. Although the two agents are phylogenetically related, specific aspects, including characteristics of clinical disease and the natural history of the parasites themselves, differ between the two species. Until recently, H. canis infections had not been clearly documented in North America, and autochthonous infection with H. americanum has yet to be reported outside of the southern United States. However, recent reports demonstrate H. canis is present in areas of North America where its vector tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has long been endemic, and that the range of H. americanum is likely expanding along with that of its vector tick, Amblyomma maculatum; co-infections with the two organisms have also been identified. Significant intraspecific variation has been reported in the 18S rRNA gene sequence of both Hepatozoon spp.-infecting dogs, suggesting that each species may represent a complex of related genogroups rather than well-defined species. Transmission of H. americanum to dogs via ingestion of cystozoites in muscle of infected vertebrates was recently demonstrated, supporting the concept of predation as a means of natural transmission. Although several exciting advances have occurred in recent years, much remains to be learned about patterns of infection and the nature of clinical disease caused by the agents of canine hepatozoonosis in North America

    From Disciplinarian to Change Agent: How the Civil Rights Era Changed the Roles of Student Affairs Professionals

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    Little has been written about the roles and functions of student affairs administrators during the civil rights era. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how the civil rights era influenced the student affairs profession, paying particular attention to the roles played by student affairs administrators in relation to students, other administrators, and the community. A secondary analysis was conducted based on interviews with 18 student affairs professionals who served on a variety of college campuses during the civil rights era, primarily from the 1950s through the 1970s. Our findings suggest that these administrators took on roles such as educator, advocate, mediator, initiator, and change agent in order to effectively and efficiently resolve issues that arose on their campuses as a result of the civil rights era and the student protest movement. Colleges and universities have been the battleground for many important civil rights concerns, and many authors have chronicled student social movements of this era (Adelman, 1972; Altbach, 1973; Strauss & Howe, 1997). In both northern and southern colleges and universities, integration of African Americans into higher education was a slow and difficult process (Clark, 1993; Cohodas, 1997; Exum, 1985). Once on campus, African American students had to deal with segregation in all types of out-of-class domains including housing, cafeterias, social activities, organized student groups (including athletics, fraternities, and sororities), availability of scholarships, on-campus and off-campus jobs, and access to barber shops and beauty parlors. Student affairs administrators were in the middle of this battlefield and played a key role in representing student demands to the administration and sometimes advocating for change to occur (Clark, 1993; Laliberte, 2003; Tuttle, 1996). Simultaneously, the presidents of many college and university campuses expected the student affairs staff to represent the institutions’ views to the students and to mete out discipline to students who failed to follow the campus rules. These conflicting demands—the desire to support students and the desire to be seen as effective administrators—put many student affairs administrators in precarious positions (Nichols, 1990). Nevertheless, student affairs professionals in the civil rights era served as communication links between the administration and students and experienced enhanced status and advancement to higher administrative positions. In the process, their experiences exerted considerable influence on the student affairs profession itself. By examining the stories of student affairs administrators, we learn firsthand how the civil rights era affected the profession. This article provides a glimpse into civil rights struggles on campus as seen through their eyes. Unfortunately, little has been written about the roles and functions of student affairs administrators during the civil rights era. One study by Crookston and Atkyns (1974) found that during the period of unrest in the 1960s, many senior student affairs officers left their positions. They also concluded that during this period student affairs administrators became known as crisis managers, and most colleges and universities elevated the chief student affairs officer from dean to vice president. In recent research that examined student affairs during the turbulent years of 1968-1972, Laliberte (2003) 1 confirmed the crisis manager and student advocate roles of student affairs administrators. For the purpose of this article, a secondary analysis of the data collected for the book Reflecting Back, Looking Forward: Civil Rights and Student Affairs (Wolf-Wendel et al., 2004) was conducted to examine how the civil rights era influenced the student affairs profession, paying particular attention to the roles played by student affairs administrators in relation to students, other administrators, and the community. The book told the stories of individuals in first person narrative form; however, this article focuses specifically on how participation during the civil rights era affected the profession itself

    Associations between COVID-19 perceptions, anxiety, and depressive symptoms among adults living in the United States

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    Background: Associations among illness perceptions of viruses, anxiety and depression symptoms, and self-management decisions, such as mask-wearing, are critical to informing public health practices to mitigate the short- and long-term consequences of the SARS-CoV-2 viral pandemic. Purpose: Guided by the common-sense model of self-regulation, this observational study examined associations among illness perceptions of COVID-19, anxiety, and depression symptoms among community-dwelling adults. Method: Data were collected from 1380 adults living in the United States early in the pandemic (03-23-2020 to 06-02-2020). Participants completed online surveys. Analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics and correlations. Findings: While increased anxiety symptoms were associated with less perceived personal control, greater concern, and higher emotional responsiveness, increased depression symptoms were related to lower concern as well as greater emotional responsiveness and perceived consequences of the pandemic. Discussion: Associations among illness perceptions, anxiety, and depression symptoms may impact viral spread mitigation behavior adoption.This project was supported by the Indiana University School of Nursing Center for Enhancing Quality of Life in Chronic Illness. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors

    A Class of Eccentric Binaries with Dynamic Tidal Distortions Discovered with Kepler

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    We have discovered a class of eccentric binary systems within the Kepler data archive that have dynamic tidal distortions and tidally-induced pulsations. Each has a uniquely shaped light curve that is characterized by periodic brightening or variability at time scales of 4-20 days, frequently accompanied by shorter period oscillations. We can explain the dominant features of the entire class with orbitally-varying tidal forces that occur in close, eccentric binary systems. The large variety of light curve shapes arises from viewing systems at different angles. This hypothesis is supported by spectroscopic radial velocity measurements for five systems, each showing evidence of being in an eccentric binary system. Prior to the discovery of these 17 new systems, only four stars, where KOI-54 is the best example, were known to have evidence of these dynamic tides and tidally-induced oscillations. We perform preliminary fits to the light curves and radial velocity data, present the overall properties of this class and discuss the work required to accurately model these systems.Comment: 13 pages, submitted to Ap
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